Staphylinidae of Eastern Canada and Adjacent United States. Key to Subfamilies; Staphylininae: Tribes and Subtribes, and Species of Staphylinina
Adam Brunke*, Alfred Newton**, Jan Klimaszewski***, Christopher Majka**** and Stephen Marshall*
*University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, School of Environmental Sciences, 1216/17 Bovey Building, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1. email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org. **Field Museum of Natural History, Zoology Department/Insect Division, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago IL, 60605. email@example.com. ***Laurentian Forestry Centre, 1055, rue du P.E.P.S., Stn. Sainte-Foy Québec, PQ, G1V 4C7. firstname.lastname@example.org **** Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, NS, B3H 3A6. email@example.com.
Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) constitute the largest family of insects worldwide, with more than 55,440 described species (Grebennikov and Newton 2009) found in a great diversity of terrestrial and periaquatic habitats. In Canada, more than 1400 species are known and some large subfamilies (Staphylininae, Tachyporinae) have been nearly completely revised. An excellent synthesis of the staphylinid literature is given by Thayer (2005); however, our understanding of staphylinid ecology and habitat requirements is still very limited. Recent work has revealed that staphylinids are dominant organisms in Canadian forest ecosystems (Paquin and Duperre 2001) and because many species require continuous, mature or old growth stands, the composition of their species assemblages effectively communicates the degree of natural or human impact upon these systems (Pohl et al. 2008). In a recent review of the use of beetles in conservation, New (2010) highlighted the critical importance of species-level identifications in surveys aiming to document changes to ecosystems via human development or climate change. The continued ability of insect surveys to address important ecological and conservation-themed questions depends primarily on the correct identification of specimens, which in turn depends on the availability of effective keys.
Despite the largest and some of the most conspicuous species being in the Staphylinina (Staphylininae: Staphylinini), the taxonomy of this subtribe is currently far from settled. The largest genus, Platydracus C. G. Thomson, remains under revision by the second author and thus no working key exists for the fauna of ECAS.To remedy this, we provide a regionalized Platydracus key in advance of the upcoming revision and describe a new species that occurs in ECAS. Multiple accidental introductions (Newton 1987; Majka and Klimaszewski 2008), a history of incorrect names (Newton 1987), inadequate species descriptions, colour variation, and the presence of several rare or typically ‘southern’ species has further complicated the recognition of Staphylinina in this region. Despite this, we show here that most Staphylinina can be easily identified to species using high-resolution photographs of readily visible characters.
In this first publication we provide an overview of, and a key to, the twenty-two staphylinid subfamilies occurring in ECAS, and then review the tribes and subtribes of Staphylininae and the twenty-five species of Staphylinina occurring in ECAS. Keys presented here will also work for the fauna of Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Rhode Island and Wisconsin. We envision this first key as a nexus for future keys to link to, thus creating an integrated guide to the Staphylinidae of ECAS. Future publications are planned, with the most immediate ones covering the remaining groups of Staphylininae.
Specimen photographs were taken with a Visionary Digital imaging system and CombineZ or Helicon Focus software was used to combine multiple photographs into high depth-of-field images. Most photographs of living specimens were taken with digital SLR cameras and a 105mm macro lens, often with the addition of a 2X teleconverter or extension rings, but live photographs were also contributed by a number of collaborators using a variety of equipment (see acknowledgments). Online keys were created with Adobe Creative Suite 3 software, including Photoshop, Illustrator, Dreamweaver and Fireworks. Maps of species distributions were prepared using ARC MAP, with records previous to 1970 mapped separately from those occurring on or after this year in order to highlight possible distribution changes over time (this was not done for common species). Most species in potential decline reviewed herein showed a noticeable change beginning around 1970, with a few species ‘declining’ in records after 1980. Thus, 1970 was chosen as a standard division point with special cases discussed under those species. Measurements were taken with an eyepiece micrometer using various dissecting microscopes. A list of institutions from which material was examined and a list of contributing photographers are given in the acknowledgements. Throughout, ‘abdominal segments 1-6’ corresponds to the segments numbered as visible and therefore represent anatomical segments 2-8. Unless otherwise stated, we follow the higher classification of Newton et al. (2000).
We thank the following photographers for the use of their work, which contributed greatly to the aesthetic and scientific value of this publication:
We are grateful to the following institutions and individuals for making specimens, including some types, available for study:
ACNS Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Nova Scotia, Canada (Susan Westby)
A. Brunke would like to thank D. K. B. Cheung (DEBU) for technical assistance and essential training used to construct the interactive keys. A. Brunke also thanks D. K. B. Cheung and M. Jackson (DEBU) for assistance with mapping software and creation of custom maps. Thanks to J. Renkema (NSAC) and D. McAlpine (NBM) for bringing the presence of P. cinnamopterus in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to our attention, respectively. We thank R. Webster (AFC) and A. Smetana (CNC) for recognizing the misidentification present in Klimaszewski et al. (2005). M. Thayer (FMNH) read an earlier version of the manuscript and provided many helpful comments. Funding for this project was provided in part by an NSERC PSG-M awarded to A. Brunke. A. Newton acknowledges U.S. National Science Foundation grant BSR-8906825 for support of databasing, dissection, and other activities in support of his ongoing revision of Platydracus, and thanks J. Klimaszewski for producing the aedeagal drawings of the P. cinnamopterus complex species used here (a more complete set of acknowledgments related to this revision will accompany its publication). C. Majka thanks the Board of Governors of the Nova Scotia Museum for ongoing support.
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