ISSN 1911-2173

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Capniidae (Plecoptera) in Canada east of Alberta

D.K. Burton

Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5. Email: [email protected]
Canadian National Collection (CNCI), Agriculture Canada, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6

Capniidae (Plecoptera) in Canada east of Alberta

Capniidae (Plecoptera) in Canada east of Alberta

D.K. Burton

Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5. Email: [email protected]
Canadian National Collection (CNCI), Agriculture Canada, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6

Abstract

An examination of adult stoneflies of the family Capniidae available in the Canadian National Collection (CNCI) and the University of Guelph (UOG) was conducted to determine and confirm the recorded distribution of species in Canada. The geographic distribution of Capniidae in North America is discussed and an adult-based key to capniid species found in Canada east of Alberta is provided. Twenty-six species of capniids have been found to occur in Canada east of Alberta.

Allocapnia sp. (Photo by S.A. Marshall)

Introduction

This study was conducted to update the checklist of capniid stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Canada east of Alberta based on identification of specimens available in the identified and unidentified Plecoptera collection of the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes (CNCI) in Ottawa and specimens located at the University of Guelph (UOG). The 110th meridian, which is approximately the boundary between the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, was chosen as a demarcation for this study because specimens from Alberta and west have been reviewed relatively recently (Stewart and Oswood 2006). The CNCI capniid collection contains over 1600 vials collected between the late 19th century to present day. A second objective of the study was to produce a photographic key to the family Capniidae found in Canada east of Alberta using specimens from the CNCI and UOG collections.

Ross and Ricker (1971) provided the first detailed examination of capniids in North America with their examination of the genus Allocapnia. The first detailed examination of the capniids in eastern Canada (including Ontario and eastward) was conducted by Harper and Hynes (1971, 1972) and for Quebec by Harper and Harper (1983). Harper and Hynes (1971) provide a key to adults of all 18 species known to occur in eastern Canada and for the nymphs of the 15 species known in the nymphal stage. Harper and Harper (1983) provided distribution maps for 16 capniid species in southern Quebec. Harper and Ricker (1994) provided county distribution data for 11 species of capniids from Ontario.

Another useful reference for the study of capniids from eastern North America was provided by Hitchcock (1974) in his guide to the stoneflies of Connecticut. Burton (1984) and Dosdall and Lehmkuhl (1979) provided distribution information for Manitoba and Saskatchewan (respectively), and Dosdall and Giberson (2014) summarized the distributional information for species found in all three Canadian prairie provinces. The distribution of capniid species in western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon) has been covered by extensive studies by Baumann et al. (1977), Nelson and Baumann (1987 and 1989) and Stewart and Oswood (2006). A review of Plecoptera species in Canada is provided by Kondratieff et al. (in press). This present study includes capniids that occur east of the 110th meridian and therefore also includes species that are western in distribution but whose range extends into this zone. Included is a photographic key to twenty-six species and updated distribution records and maps.

The systematic arrangement of the Capniidae given in the checklist and species accounts associated with the key is based on Muranyi et al. (2014). Jurisdictional abbreviations are from Table 3 of the Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (2016) and Stark et al. (1986). The morphological terminology is that of Hitchcock (1974) and Muranyi et al. (2014).

Methods & Materials

All capniid specimens in the CNCI were examined to verify or determine species and to update any name changes due to taxonomic changes. Selected specimens from UOG were also examined to verify and determine species designation. Specimens were examined using a Leica MZ6 stereomicroscope. Photos of selected specimens from the CNCI and UOG were taken using a Tucsen USB 2.0 H Series camera attached to a Leica MZ6 stereomicroscope using Windows Live Photo Gallery software. All Allocapnia specimens used for photographic species determination were relaxed in KOH (aq) and cleared with a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide.

All specimens examined in this study have been entered into the CNCI and UOG databases. Distribution maps were generated using decimal GPS coordinates and plotted using an Excel Mapcite software program. Detailed collection data and photographs for specimens at the CNCI are available in their online database (http://www.cnc-ottawa.ca/taxonomy/SpecSearchD15.php). These specimens are indicated using black pins on all distribution maps. Detailed collection data and photographs for specimens loaned  from the University of Guelph as part of the BOLD website (UOG) are available online at (http://v4.boldsystems.org/index.php/Public_BINSearch?searchtype=records) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007), and these specimens are indicated by green pins on all distribution maps. Additional records included from the Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection Database (INHS) (http://inhsinsectcollection.speciesfile.org/InsectCollection.aspx) are indicated by blue pins on distribution maps. Other records included from previously published research are indicated by red pins on distribution maps. Distribution maps only include literature records where specific collection data was given, or a map was provided. In some cases, some collection data was omitted where a distribution map of a species became too cluttered or where distribution records were repeated locations for specimens in the CNCI collection.

Also included is a checklist of the Capniidae of Canada east of Alberta including their Canadian provincial and territorial distribution (Table 1). Species recorded for the first time from a province or territory are indicated in red with an *. Previously published jurisdictional records that were not listed in the on-line Plecoptera Species File (http://plecoptera.speciesfile.org/HomePage/Plecoptera/HomePage.aspx) are bolded in red.

Checklist

Table 1. Checklist of the Capniidae (Diagnosis) of Canada east of Alberta including their Canadian Provincial and Territorial distribution. Species recorded for the first time from a province or territory are indicated in red with an  asterisk (*). Previously published jurisdictional records that were not listed in the on-line Plecoptera Species File (http://plecoptera.speciesfile.org/HomePage/Plecoptera/HomePage.aspx) are bolded in red.

Allocapnia Claassen 1928 (Diagnosis) (Key to Species)
    Allocapnia granulata (Claassen, 1924) MB ON PQ
    Allocapnia illinoensis Frison, 1935 ON PQ NB*1
    Allocapnia indianae Ricker, 1952 PQ2
    Allocapnia maria Hanson, 1942 PQ NB NS
    Allocapnia minima (Barnston, 1848) ON PQ NB NS NF
    Allocapnia nivicola (Fitch, 1847) PQ NB NS
    Allocapnia pechumani Ross and Ricker, 1964 PQ NB
    Allocapnia pygmaea (Burmeister, 1839) ON PQ NB NS
    Allocapnia recta (Claassen, 1924) ON PQ NS
    Allocapnia rickeri Frison, 1942 ON PQ3
    Allocapnia vivipara (Claassen, 1924) ON PQ
    Allocapnia zola Ricker, 1952 NB
Capnia Pictet 1841 sensu stricto
    Capnia s.s nearctica Banks, 1919 YK NT NU BC MB ON
Capnia Pictet 1841 sensu lato
    Capnia s.l. coloradensis Claassen, 1937 YK BC SK MB
    Capnia s.l. confusa Claassen, 1936 YK NT BC AB SK MB
    Capnia s.l. gracilaria Claassen, 1924 YK*4 BC AB SK MB
    Capnia s.l vernalis Newport, 1848 NT NU BC AB SK MB ON PQ NB LB NF
Capnura Banks 1900
    Capnura manitoba (Claassen, 1924) MB ON PQ NB
Isocapnia Banks 1938 (Key to Species)
    Isocapnia crinita (Needhan and Claassen, 1925) YK AB SK
    Isocapnia integra Hanson, 1943 YK BC AB
Mesocapnia Raušer 1968
    Mesocapnia sugluka (Ricker, 1965) PQ (Ungava)
Nemocapnia Banks 1938
    Nemocapnia carolina Banks, 1938 PQ
Paracapnia Hanson 1946 (Key to Species)
    Paracapnia angulata Hanson, 1961 SK MB ON PQ NB*5 NS*6 PE7 LB NF
    Paracapnia opis (Newman, 1839) ON PQ NB NS*8 LB NF
Utacapnia Gaufin 1970 (Key to Males) (Key to Females)
    Utacapnia labradora (Ricker, 1954) PQ LB
    Utacapnia trava (Nebeker and Gaufin, 1965) BC AB SK MB

1 – specimens in the Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection Database (INHS)
2 – Harper and Harper 1983
3 – Harper and Harper 1983
Graniteville, Route 247, Quebec, 1 ♂, 3.iv.1982 (P.P. Harper)
4 – North Fork Crossing, mile 48 Aklavik Road, Olgivie Mountains, Yukon. 1 ♂, 3.vii.1962 (R.E. Leech)
5 – Boutouche River, 10 miles East of Harcourt, New Brunswick, 1 ♂, 13.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile East of Pokiak, New Brunswick, 6 ♂+♀, 21.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles East of Magnetic Hill, Moncton, New Brunswick, 5 ♂+♀, 13.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
8 miles East of Forks, Hwy #7, New Brunswick, 6 ♂+♀, 13.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
13 miles East of Magnetic Hill, Cocagne River, New Brunswick, 19 ♂+♀, 13.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
18 miles East of Forks, Hwy #112, New Brunswick, 31 ♂+♀, 13.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
6 – Arm Brook, 1 mile South of Sherbrooke Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 11 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile West of Wentworth Creek, Hwy #4, Nova Scotia, 3 ♂+♀, 14.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
5 miles West of Mabou, S.W. Mabou River, Cape Breton Island, Hwy # 19, Nova Scotia, 8 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Ecum Secum, Hwy. #7, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles west of Debert, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Archibald’s Brook, 1 mile S. of Sherbrooke Hwy. # 7, Nova Scotia, 8 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
3 miles East of Amherst, Hwy. #2, Nova Scotia, 2 ♂+♀, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Moose River at Hwy. # 7, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile West of Glendale, MacLellan Brook at Hwy. #5, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
S.W. Margaree, Cape Breton Island Hwy # 19, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Nyanza, Cape Breton Island, Hwy # 5, Middle River, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles East of Moser River at Hwy. # 7, Nova Scotia, 5 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
3 miles East of Port Hastings, Cape Breton Island at Hwy # 5, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Upper Musquodoboit at Hwy # 24, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 19.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile West of Nyanza, Cape breton Island, Hwy # 5, Nova Scotia, 13 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
5 miles South East of Brookfield, Nova Scotia, 9 ♂+♀, 19.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
7 – Dobrin and Giberson 2003
specimens in the INHS collection
8 – 3 miles West of Glendale, Cape Breton Island, Rough Brook and Hwy. #5, Nova Scotia, 3 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Arm Brook, 1 mile South of Sherbrooke Hwy # 7, Nova Scotia, 7 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
5 miles West of Chester Basin, Hwy #3, Nova Scotia, 20 ♂+♀, 20.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
3 miles North of Dean, Nova Scotia, 12 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles West of Debert, Nova Scotia, 5 ♂+♀, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
East River, Hwy #3, Nova Scotia, 8 ♂+♀, 20.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Liscombe River at Liscombe Mills, Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 64 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Gold River, Chester Basin, Hwy #3, Nova Scotia, 9 ♂+♀, 20.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
McKeen Brook, Melrose, Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 3 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles East of Moser River, Hwy # 7, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Musquodoboit Habour, Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 4 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
3 miles East of Port Hastings, Cape Breton Island, Hwy #5, Nova Scotia, 2 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Middle River, Hwy # 5 at Nyanza, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 4 ♂, 189.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile East of Preston, Hwy # 7, Nova Scotia, 6 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
2 miles West of Sheet Harbour on Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 20 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
3 miles East of Sheet Harbour, Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 20 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
5 miles West of Sheet Harbour, Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 6 ♂+♀, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
2 miles East of Springhill, Hwy # 4, Nova Scotia, 10 ♂+♀, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
2 miles East of Wentworth, Hwy. # 4, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Gays River, Hwy 24, Nova Scotia, 3 ♂+♀, 19.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Glendale, Cape Breton Island, Red bridge Hwy #5, Nova Scotia, 81 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
1 mile West of Glendale, Cape Breton Islands, MacLellan Brook at Hwy #5, Nova Scotia, 15 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
New Germany, Meisner’s Section Hwy 10, Nova Scotia, 31 ♂+♀, 20.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Upper Stewiake, Nova Scotia, 4 ♂+♀, 19.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
10 miles East of Antigonish at Hwy #4, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Archibaldi Brook, 1 mile South of Sherbrooke at Hwy # 7, Nova Scotia, 2 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
7 miles East of Amhearst at Hwy # 2, Nova Scotia, 4 ♂+♀, 15.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Jadique, Cape Breton Island, Graham River at Hwy #19, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
4 miles West of Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, 1 ♂, 19.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
15 miles East of Truro at hwy #4, Nova Scotia, 20 ♂+♀, 18.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)
Moose River at Hwy #7, Nova Scotia, 3 ♂, 17.iv.1967 (J.E.H. Martin)

Species Key

Results & Discussion

Twenty-six capniid species in eight genera were recorded in Canada east of Alberta, based on a combination of specimens examined from the CNCI and UOG and records from the literature. These are listed in the checklist below (Table 1), with notes on their Canadian distribution. More detail on distribution and biology can be found in the species accounts associated with the photographic key, along with Canadian or North American distribution maps for each species.

A photographic dichotomous key is presented which will allow the user to separate the adults of all 26 species reported here. This key includes 8 species of capniids not covered by the key provided by Harper and Hynes (1971). Two species of AllocapniaA. indianae (Harper and Harper 1983) and A. zola (Ross and Ricker 1971 - INHS) are added as a result of literature records. Six species are added, Isocapnia crinitia, I. integra, Capnia coloradensis, C. confusa, C. gracilaria and Utacapnia trava, as a result of the extension of the study area to include the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The inclusion of a photographic key greatly enhances one's ability to identify specimens when compared to the simple line drawings available in Harper and Hynes (1971). For capniids that may be collected that don't match the specimens in this key researchers are referred  to the following references:  Allocapnia (Ross and Ricker 1971; Stark and Kondratieff 2012),  Capnia (Nelson and Baumann 1989),  Capnura (Nelson and Baumann 1987), Isocapnia (Zenger and Baumann 2004), Mesocapnia  (Baumann and Gaufin 1970),  Nemocapnia ( Stark et al. 2016), Paracapnia (Stark and Baumann 2004) and Utacapnia (Nebeker and Gaufin 1965).

This study confirms the presence of A. rickeri in Quebec, adds P. angulata to the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia fauna, P. opis to the Nova Scotia fauna and C. coloradensis to the Yukon fauna based on specimens present in the CNCI. Allocapnia illinoensis is added to the New Brunswick fauna based on specimens in the INHS. The species A. indianae is added to the Quebec fauna and P. angulata to the Prince Edward Island fauna based on literature records. The distribution of A. granulataA. minimaA. pygmaea and P. opis are extended westward and the distribution of C. confusa and C. gracilaria are extended eastward based on recently collected and identified specimens in the CNCI collection. Further research needs to be completed in the northern areas of Ontario, Manitoba, Quebec and Saskatchewan to determine the northern range of capniid species in this study area.

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Cite

Burton, D.K. 2019. Capniidae (Plecoptera) in Canada east of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 36: 114pp. doi:10.3752/cjai.2019.36