ISSN 1911-2173

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The Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

Morgan D. Jackson*

Stephen A. Marshall*

Robert Hanner**

Allen L. Norrbom***

*School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada [email protected][email protected].
** Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada [email protected]. ***Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012, USA [email protected].

The Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

The Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

Morgan D. Jackson*

Stephen A. Marshall*

Robert Hanner**

Allen L. Norrbom***

*School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada [email protected][email protected].
** Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada [email protected]. ***Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012, USA [email protected].

Abstract

Fourteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 73 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provided. Keys are illustrated with approximately 700 color photographs, and species treatments are supplemented with multiple identification aids, including Ontario distribution maps for each species. To aid in identification of immature stages, we have included sequence data (DNA barcodes) for 41 of the 73 species examined.

Stenopa vulnerata. Photo by S.A. Marshall

Introduction

Although best known because of their importance as agricultural pests, Tephritidae are also worthy of attention as generally attractive flies with intricate wing patterns and interesting mating and defensive behaviours. The taxonomy of the North American species is relatively well known, and the entire North American fauna was recently reviewed by Foote et al. (1993), who included distributional data and maps showing 42 species and 19 genera ranging into Ontario. We here review the Ontario fauna, primarily on the basis of specimens in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (DEBU), the Canadian National Collection (CNCI), the Lyman Entomological Museum (LEM), and the Royal Ontario Museum (ROME). The Ontario records in Foote et al. (1993) represent only about 60% of the fauna; we now recognise 67 species and 30 genera in the province, significantly more than previously thought but still a manageable number compared to the roughly 4550 valid species within almost 500 genera of Tephritidae described worldwide.

The keys in Foote et al. (1993) are thorough and richly illustrated, but are necessarily complex because they cover all 300 North American tephritid species. The keys herein are relatively simple because they are limited to the 73 species that occur, or are likely to occur, in the province of Ontario. More than 700 colour photographs are used to support a technical key adapted from Foote et al. (1993), as well as a field key designed for the identification of genera using a hand lens or macro photographs.

Although the keys included in this paper use a variety of characters, wing patterns are particularly important, and colour wing photos are included for all species. Whole specimen photographs are also included, since many species have a distinctive habitus that can confirm identifications. Host data has been included wherever possible, as host information can often expedite speedy and reliable identification.

DNA barcoding (Hebert et al. 2003), a recently developed approach to animal identification, is of potential value to the rapid detection of pest tephritid species, especially immature life stages that may be difficult to identify using morphological characters. DNA barcodes (standardised cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequences) are provided here for 40 of the the 67 Ontario tephritid species as an adjunct to traditional morphological tools for tephritid identification. In order to identify any unknown specimen, barcoding requires a reference database of known DNA sequences for comparison; the barcodes included herein contribute to that reference database for the Tephritidae.

Checklist

Checklist of fruit fly species occuring or likely to occur in Ontario (classification based on Norrbom et al. 1999)

‡ - New Canadian record

† - New Ontario record

* - Species not yet recorded in Ontario, but likely to occur

◊ - Species recorded from Ontario since Foote et al. (1993)

  • – Barcode Acquired

Subfamily Trypetinae

Tribe Adramini

Euphranta Loew

Euphranta canadensis (Loew) ●

Tribe Carpomyini

Subtribe Carpomyina

Rhagoletis Loew

Rhagoletis basiola (Osten Sacken) ●

Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush ‡

Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) ●

Rhagoletis cornivora Bush

Rhagoletis fausta Osten Sacken ●

Rhagoletis juniperina Marcovitch ◊●

Rhagoletis meigenii (Loew) †

Rhagoletis mendax Curran

Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) ●

Rhagoletis striatella Wulp ●

Rhagoletis suavis (Loew) ‡●

Rhagoletis tabellaria (Fitch) ●

Rhagoletis zephyria Snow

Rhagoletotrypeta Aczél

Rhagoletotrypeta rohweri Foote ‡●

Zonosemata Benjamin

Zonosemata electa (Say) ●

Tribe Trypetini

Subtribe Chetostomatina

Chetostoma Rondani

Chetostoma californicum Blanc

Paramyiolia Shiraki

Paramyiolia nigricornis (Doane)

Parastenopa Hendel

Parastenopa limata (Coquillett) ‡

Subtribe Trypetina

Euleia Walker

Euleia fratria (Loew) ●

Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy

Strauzia arculata (Loew) ‡

Strauzia intermedia (Loew)

Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann) ●

Strauzia perfecta (Loew) ●

Trypeta Meigen

Trypeta flaveola Coquillett ◊●

Subfamily Tephritinae

Tribe Acrotaeniini

Tomoplagia Coquillett

Tomoplagia obliqua (Say) ◊●

Tribe Cecidocharini

Procecidochares Hendel

Procecidochares atra (Loew) ●

Procecidochares gibba (Loew) *

Procecidocharoides Foote

Procecidocharoides penelope (Osten Sacken)

Tribe Dithrycini

Subtribe Eurostina

Eurosta Loew

Eurosta comma Wiedemann ◊●

Eurosta cribrata (Wulp) *

Eurosta fenestrata Snow †

Eurosta latifrons (Loew) *

Eurosta solidaginis solidaginis (Fitch) ●

Tribe Eutretini

Eutreta Loew

Eutreta caliptera (Say)

Eutreta frontalis Curran ●

Eutreta novaeboracensis (Fitch) ●

Stenopa Loew

Stenopa vulnerata (Loew) †●

Xanthomyia Phillips

Xanthomyia platyptera (Loew) ◊●

Tribe Myopitini

Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy

Urophora affinis affinis (Frauenfeld) †

Urophora cardui (Linnaeus) ◊●

Urophora quadrifasciata quadrifasciata (Meigen) ◊●

Tribe Noeetini

Acidogona Loew

Acidogona melanura (Loew) *

Jamesomyia Quisenberry

Jamesomyia geminata (Loew) ◊

Tribe Tephritini

Campiglossa Hendel

Campiglossa albiceps (Loew) ●

Campiglossa farinata (Novak)

Campiglossa genalis (Thomson)

Campiglossa sabroskyi Novak †●

Dioxyna Frey

Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) ●

Euaresta Loew

Euaresta aequalis (Loew) ●

Euaresta bella (Loew) ●

Euaresta festiva (Loew) ●

Euarestoides Benjamin

Euarestoides abstersus (Loew) *

Euarestoides acutangulus (Thomson) *

Neotephritis Hendel

Neotephritis finalis (Loew)

Tephritis Latreille

Tephritis angustipennis (Loew) ●

Tephritis araneosa (Coquillett) ●

Tephritis candidipennis Foote †

Tephritis michiganensis Quisenberry

Tephritis pura (Loew) ●

Tephritis webbii Doane

Trupanea Schrank

Trupanea actinobola (Loew) ●

Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips

Xanthaciura Hendel

Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips) ◊●

Tribe Terellini

Neaspilota Osten Sacken

Neaspilota alba (Loew) *

Neaspilota albidipennis (Loew) ◊●

Neaspilota footei Friedberg & Mathis

Neaspilota reticulata Norrbom & Foote ◊

Neaspilota vernoniae (Loew) ◊

Terellia Robineau-Desvoidy

Terellia palposa (Loew) ●

Terellia ruficauda (Fabricius) ●

Tribe Xyphosiini

Icterica Loew

Icterica circinata (Loew) ●

Icterica seriata (Loew) ●

Material & Methods

Morphological Work

Character photos were taken using a Microptics Digital Lab XLT imaging system utilizing a Canon EOS 1 Ds camera and Microptics ML-1000 flash fibre optic illumination system. The computer freeware CombineZ (http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/CZ5/combinez5.htm) was used to combine multiple photos taken at different focal points into high-resolution images. Pinned specimen habitus shots, plates and some character shots were taken using a Nikon D70s digital camera, a Nikkor 105mm Macro lens, and a Nikon SB800 flash unit. Live habitus photographs were taken using Nikon D70 or D2X cameras, with 105mm or 60mm lenses and various flash combinations. Photos were processed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 (AP CS3) for Windows; the online web pages were designed and built in Microsoft Powerpoint 2003. Further work on the web pages was done using Adobe Fireworks and Adobe Dreamweaver.
Most specimens used in pinned habitus shots are from the University of Guelph Insect Collection, although some specimen photos were of specimens borrowed from the CNCI and LEM. Specimens used for photos have been labeled accordingly and deposited.

Genetic Analysis

Total genomic DNA was extracted from a single leg according to the protocol developed by Ivanova et al. (2006). A 658-bp region near the 5 terminus of the CO1 gene was amplified using primers LepF1 5' -ATTCAACCAATCATAAAGATATTGG-3 and LepR1 5' -TAAACTTCTGGATGTCCAAAAAATCA-3.
PCRs were carried out in 96-well plates in 12.5- l reaction volumes containing 2.5 mM MgCl2, 5 pmol of each primer, 20 M dNTPs, 10 mM Tris HCl (pH 8.3), 50 mM KCl, 10–20 ng (1–2 l) of genomic DNA, and 1 unit of TaqDNA polymerase using a thermocycling profile of one cycle of 2 min at 94°C; five cycles of 40 sec at 94°C, 40 sec at 45°C, and 1 min at 72°C; followed by 35 cycles of 40 sec at 94°C, 40 sec at 51°C, and 1 min at 72°C, with a final step of 5 min at 72°C. Products were visualized on a 2% agarose E-Gel 96-well system (Invitrogen), and samples containing clean single bands were bidirectionally sequenced by using BIGDYE 3.1 on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Contigs were assembled by using SEQUENCHER 4.0.5 (Gene Codes).

Sequences, trace files, and field data are available in the Teph (file name) file in the Completed Projects section of the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org; Ratnasingham and Hebert, 2007). Additional collection information is deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection Database and all sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database (CO1: accession nos. EU484466–EU484568). Sequence divergences were calculated by using the K2P distance model (Kimura, 1980) and an NJ phenogram (Saitou & Nei, 1987) was created (as implemented in BOLD) to provide a graphic representation of the among-species divergences. A table of specimens sequenced for DNA barcoding has been included (Appendix I).

DNA Barcoding

The Utility of DNA Barcoding for Specimen Identification in Tephritidae

COI sequences (DNA Barcodes) were obtained for 128 specimens (out of 202 specimens attempted, see Appendix I), representing 41 species in 22 genera. Of these 128 successful specimens, 44 yielded full DNA Barcodes (658bp), 59 yielded near-complete DNA Barcodes (561bp or more), and 25 specimens yielded sequences of less than 350bp.

When sequences were compared using a neighbor-joining phenogram (Appendix II), most, but not all, specimens formed distinct clusters which accurately reflected morphological species. Two clusters incorrectly “identified” morphologically distinct specimens. Euaresta festiva (TEPH012, TEPH098) clustered with a single Euaresta aequalis specimen (TEPH010) and a single Euphranta canadensis specimen (TEPH014), despite remaining disjunct from the main Euaresta aequalis and Euphranta canadensis clusters. All sequences in this Euaresta festiva cluster were longer than 601bp, so we postulate a possible contamination of the TEPH010 and TEPH014 sequences.

A single Rhagoletis cingulata specimen (TEPH 123) was clustered with Campiglossa sabroskyi (TEPH0117), while the remaining R. cingulata specimens successfully clustered together away from the Campiglossa group. This anomaly is possibly an artifact of insufficient data, as the TEPH123 sequence is only 288bp, or perhaps a contaminant.

The sequences identified above as potential cases of contamination were annotated in the BOLD database to reflect these concerns.

In multiple instances, DNA barcodes of closely related species provided insufficient information for distinguishing between these species (i.e. Tephritis candidipennis and T. puraEutreta frontalis and E. novaeboracensis; Urophora affinis and U. cardui). Further taxon sampling and inclusion of more specimens may be required for differentiating these species using DNA Barcodes or use of another marker may be necessary.

The objective of the sequencing component of this project was to contribute to the DNA Barcoding database by providing CO1 sequences based on morphologically identified specimens. This was done to facilitate the potential use of a sequence database as an identification aid, and not to test species concepts and taxon limits. With this in mind, our limited dataset does show that most genera and species of Ontario Tephritidae possess distinct DNA Barcode clusters, and that most haplogroups reflect morphologically defined taxa. The database of fruit fly DNA Barcodes is currently being expanded through an international collaboration of researchers under the Tephritid Barcode Initiative.

Field Key

Field Key

Specific Keys

 

Morphology

Acknowledgments

The lead author received one summer’s funding as an undergraduate student from the following sources: Canada-Ontario research and Development Program as administered by the Agriculture Adaptation Council, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, and Food and Rural Affairs, as well as funding provided by the Canadian Greenhouse Conference, Flowers Canada Ontario, Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers and an Ontario Centres of Excellence grant to the third author, and an NSERC Discovery grant to the second author. The authors would like to thank the Canadian National Collection of Insects, the Lyman Entomological Museum, and the Royal Ontario Museum Entomology Collection for specimen loans, Rachel Breese, João Lima, and Junbin Zhang for help with the molecular technical work, Dave Cheung for help with the key design, photography and web development advice, and the University of Guelph Insect Systematics lab members for specimens, advice and key testing.

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Appendix 1

Appendix I - BOLD Database & Genbank Accession Numbers for Specimens Sequenced

BOLD Database (Ratnasingham & Hebert, 2007) identifiers for specimens sequenced for DNA Barcoding.
Species Identification Sample ID  Museum ID Process ID Specimen Voucher Deposit Location GenBank Accession No.
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH059  debu00226256 TEPH059-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484468
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH060  debu00170257 TEPH060-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484467
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH061 debu01008992 TEPH061-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH062 debu01008993 TEPH062-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH063 debu01008994 TEPH063-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Campiglossa albiceps  TEPH064  debu00226214 TEPH064-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484466
Campiglossa farinata  TEPH119 debu01009032 TEPH119-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Campiglossa genalis  TEPH118 debu01009031 TEPH118-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Campiglossa sabroskyi  TEPH117 debu01009030 TEPH117-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484469
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH022  debu01110638 TEPH022-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH023  debu01109501 TEPH023-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH024  debu00255088 TEPH024-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH093  debu00219509 TEPH093-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484474
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH094  debu01115971 TEPH094-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH095 debu01009011 TEPH095-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH189  debu00286588 TEPH189-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484473
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH190  debu00286589 TEPH190-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484472
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH191  debu00286590 TEPH191-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484471
Dioxyna picciola  TEPH192  debu00286591 TEPH192-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484470
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH008  debu00198267 TEPH008-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484478
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH009  debu00198563 TEPH009-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484477
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH010 debu01008965 TEPH010-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484476
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH096 debu01009012 TEPH096-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH097 debu01009013 TEPH097-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euaresta aequalis  TEPH196 debu01009078 TEPH196-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484475
Euaresta bella  TEPH001 debu01008961 TEPH001-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484487
Euaresta bella  TEPH002  debu00137199 TEPH002-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484486
Euaresta bella  TEPH003 debu01008962 TEPH003-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484485
Euaresta bella  TEPH004 debu01008963 TEPH004-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484484
Euaresta bella  TEPH005  debu01113013 TEPH005-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euaresta bella  TEPH006  debu00274179 TEPH006-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484483
Euaresta bella  TEPH007 debu01008964 TEPH007-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484482
Euaresta bella  TEPH161 debu01009058 TEPH161-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484481
Euaresta bella  TEPH162 debu01009059 TEPH162-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484480
Euaresta bella  TEPH163 debu01009060 TEPH163-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484479
Euaresta festiva  TEPH011 debu01008966 TEPH011-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euaresta festiva  TEPH012 debu01008967 TEPH012-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484489
Euaresta festiva  TEPH013 debu01008968 TEPH013-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euaresta festiva  TEPH098 debu01009014 TEPH098-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484488
Euaresta festiva  TEPH195 debu01009077 TEPH195-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euleia fratria  TEPH101  debu00071205 TEPH101-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484491
Euleia fratria  TEPH102 debu01009017 TEPH102-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484490
Euphranta canadensis  TEPH014 debu01008969 TEPH014-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484493
Euphranta canadensis  TEPH015 debu00084816 TEPH015-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484492
Euphranta canadensis  TEPH099 debu01009015 TEPH099-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Euphranta canadensis  TEPH100 debu01009016 TEPH100-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eurosta comma  TEPH025 debu01008972 TEPH025-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484496
Eurosta comma  TEPH026  debu00137244 TEPH026-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eurosta comma  TEPH027  debu00137243 TEPH027-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484495
Eurosta comma  TEPH028  debu01113923 TEPH028-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484494
Eurosta comma  TEPH029 debu01008973 TEPH029-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH030 debu01008974 TEPH030-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484503
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH031 debu01008975 TEPH031-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484502
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH032 debu01008976 TEPH032-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH033  debu01113266 TEPH033-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH103 debu01009018 TEPH103-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484501
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH104 debu01009019 TEPH104-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484500
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH105 debu01009020 TEPH105-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484499
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH106 debu01009021 TEPH106-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484498
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH107 debu01009022 TEPH107-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484497
Eurosta solidaginis  TEPH108 debu01009023 TEPH108-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta frontalis  TEPH034 debu01008977 TEPH034-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta frontalis  TEPH109 debu01009024 TEPH109-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta frontalis  TEPH110 debu01009025 TEPH110-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484504
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH035 debu01008978 TEPH035-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH036 debu01008979 TEPH036-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH037 debu01008980 TEPH037-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH038  debu01123054 TEPH038-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH039  debu01108921 TEPH039-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484508
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH040 debu01008981 TEPH040-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH041 debu01008982 TEPH041-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH042  debu00241303 TEPH042-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH111  debu01112094 TEPH111-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484507
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH112  debu01103764 TEPH112-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH113 debu01009026 TEPH113-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH114 debu01009027 TEPH114-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484506
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH115 debu01009028 TEPH115-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH116 debu01009029 TEPH116-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484505
Eutreta novaeboracensis  TEPH199 debu01009081 TEPH199-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Icterica circinata  TEPH016  debu01124485 TEPH016-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484509
Icterica seriata  TEPH017 debu01008970 TEPH017-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Icterica seriata  TEPH018  debu00254779 TEPH018-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484511
Icterica seriata  TEPH019  debu00240980 TEPH019-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484510
Jamesomyia geminata  TEPH020  debu00084817 TEPH020-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Jamesomyia geminata  TEPH021 debu01008971 TEPH021-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Neaspilota albidipennis  TEPH185  debu00286568 TEPH185-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484515
Neaspilota albidipennis  TEPH186  debu00286569 TEPH186-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484514
Neaspilota albidipennis  TEPH187  debu00286570 TEPH187-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484513
Neaspilota albidipennis  TEPH188  debu00286571 TEPH188-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484512
Procecidochares atra  TEPH078  debu01138272 TEPH078-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Procecidochares atra  TEPH079  debu01138266 TEPH079-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484522
Procecidochares atra  TEPH120  debu01141520 TEPH120-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484521
Procecidochares atra  TEPH125  debu00216490 TEPH125-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484520
Rhagoletis basiola  TEPH121 debu01009033 TEPH121-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484524
Rhagoletis basiola  TEPH133  debu00173517 TEPH133-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484523
Rhagoletis basiola  TEPH134  debu00118861 TEPH134-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis basiola  TEPH135 debu01009042 TEPH135-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH085 debu01009004 TEPH085-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH086  debu01138319 TEPH086-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484528
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH087 debu01009005 TEPH087-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH088 debu01009006 TEPH088-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH089 debu01009007 TEPH089-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484527
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH122 debu01009034 TEPH122-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484526
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH123 debu01009035 TEPH123-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cingulata  TEPH124 debu01009036 TEPH124-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484525
Rhagoletis cornivora  TEPH080 debu01008999 TEPH080-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cornivora  TEPH081 debu01009000 TEPH081-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cornivora  TEPH082 debu01009001 TEPH082-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cornivora  TEPH083 debu01009002 TEPH083-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis cornivora  TEPH084 debu01009003 TEPH084-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis fausta  TEPH090 debu01009008 TEPH090-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis fausta  TEPH091 debu01009009 TEPH091-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis fausta  TEPH092 debu01009010 TEPH092-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis fausta  TEPH131 debu01009040 TEPH131-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis fausta  TEPH132 debu01009041 TEPH132-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis juniperina  TEPH136  debu00237659 TEPH136-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484532
Rhagoletis juniperina  TEPH137  debu00235895 TEPH137-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484531
Rhagoletis juniperina  TEPH138  debu00237582 TEPH138-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484530
Rhagoletis juniperina  TEPH140  debu00237654 TEPH140-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484529
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH126 debu01009037 TEPH126-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484534
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH141 debu01009043 TEPH141-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH142 debu01009044 TEPH142-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH143 debu01009045 TEPH143-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH144 debu01009046 TEPH144-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH145 debu01009047 TEPH145-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH146 debu01009048 TEPH146-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH147 debu01009049 TEPH147-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484533
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH148  debu00224167 TEPH148-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH149 debu01009050 TEPH149-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH150 debu01009051 TEPH150-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH151 debu01009052 TEPH151-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis pomonella  TEPH152 debu01009053 TEPH152-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis striatella  TEPH173 debu01009065 TEPH173-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis striatella  TEPH174 debu01009066 TEPH174-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis striatella  TEPH175  debu01110948 TEPH175-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484535
Rhagoletis suavis  TEPH165  debu00218039 TEPH165-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484536
Rhagoletis suavis  TEPH166 debu01009061 TEPH166-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis suavis  TEPH167 debu01009062 TEPH167-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis suavis  TEPH168  debu00192612 TEPH168-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis tabellaria  TEPH139  debu00255089 TEPH139-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Rhagoletis tabellaria  TEPH169  debu00182545 TEPH169-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484540
Rhagoletis tabellaria  TEPH170  debu00222897 TEPH170-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484539
Rhagoletis tabellaria  TEPH171 debu01009063 TEPH171-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484538
Rhagoletis tabellaria  TEPH172 debu01009064 TEPH172-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484537
Rhagoletotrypeta rohweri  TEPH180  debu00006142 TEPH180-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484542
Rhagoletotrypeta rohweri  TEPH181 debu01009071 TEPH181-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484541
Stenopa vulnerata  TEPH176 debu01009067 TEPH176-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Stenopa vulnerata  TEPH177 debu01009068 TEPH177-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Stenopa vulnerata  TEPH178 debu01009069 TEPH178-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484544
Stenopa vulnerata  TEPH179 debu01009070 TEPH179-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484543
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH130  debu01101981 TEPH130-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484548
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH153  debu01101968 TEPH153-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484547
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH154 debu01009054 TEPH154-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484546
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH155 debu01009055 TEPH155-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484545
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH194 debu01009076 TEPH194-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH197 debu01009079 TEPH197-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Strauzia longipennis  TEPH198 debu01009080 TEPH198-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Strauzia perfecta  TEPH129  debu01114245 TEPH129-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484549
Tephritis angustipennis  TEPH183 debu01009073 TEPH183-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis araneosa  TEPH065  debu00184132 TEPH065-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484550
Tephritis araneosa  TEPH066 debu01008995 TEPH066-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis araneosa  TEPH067 debu01008996 TEPH067-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis candidipennis  TEPH184 debu01009074 TEPH184-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis pura  TEPH068 debu01008997 TEPH068-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis pura  TEPH069  debu00080118 TEPH069-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484555
Tephritis pura  TEPH070  debu00205093 TEPH070-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis pura  TEPH071  debu00113232 TEPH071-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484554
Tephritis pura  TEPH072 debu01008998 TEPH072-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis pura  TEPH182 debu01009072 TEPH182-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tephritis pura  TEPH193 debu01009075 TEPH193-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484553
Tephritis pura  TEPH200  debu00264218 TEPH200-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484552
Tephritis pura  TEPH201  debu00264219 TEPH201-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484551
Terellia palposa  TEPH052 debu01008987 TEPH052-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484517
Terellia palposa  TEPH053 debu01008988 TEPH053-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Terellia palposa  TEPH054 debu01008989 TEPH054-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484516
Terellia ruficauda  TEPH055 debu01008990 TEPH055-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Terellia ruficauda  TEPH056  debu00226404 TEPH056-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484519
Terellia ruficauda  TEPH057  debu01140012 TEPH057-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484518
Terellia ruficauda  TEPH058 debu01008991 TEPH058-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Tomoplagia obliqua  TEPH073  debu01117438 TEPH073-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484557
Tomoplagia obliqua  TEPH074  debu00173125 TEPH074-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484556
Trupanea actinobola  TEPH075  debu01139627 TEPH075-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484559
Trupanea actinobola  TEPH076  debu01139594 TEPH076-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484558
Trypeta flaveola  TEPH077  debu00070568 TEPH077-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484561
Trypeta flaveola  TEPH164  debu00250251 TEPH164-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484560
Urophora affinis TEPH202 debu00300911 TEPH202-10 University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora cardui  TEPH043  debu00226495 TEPH043-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484563
Urophora cardui  TEPH044  debu00226496 TEPH044-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484562
Urophora cardui  TEPH045 debu01008983 TEPH045-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora cardui  TEPH046 debu01008984 TEPH046-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora quadrifasciata  TEPH047 debu01008985 TEPH047-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora quadrifasciata  TEPH048 debu01008986 TEPH048-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora quadrifasciata  TEPH049  debu00225813 TEPH049-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484565
Urophora quadrifasciata  TEPH050  debu00224128 TEPH050-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Urophora quadrifasciata  TEPH051  debu00218038 TEPH051-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484564
Xanthaciura tetraspina  TEPH127 debu01009038 TEPH127-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484566
Xanthomyia platyptera  TEPH156  debu01110387 TEPH156-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484568
Xanthomyia platyptera  TEPH157  debu01111432 TEPH157-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Xanthomyia platyptera  TEPH158  debu01111355 TEPH158-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection EU484567
Zonosemata electa  TEPH128 debu01009039 TEPH128-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Zonosemata electa  TEPH159 debu01009056 TEPH159-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection
Zonosemata electa  TEPH160 debu01009057 TEPH160-07  University of Guelph Insect Collection

Appendix 2

Appendix II - Neighbor Joining Cladogram of Tephritidae COI Sequences (DNA Barcodes)

Cite

Jackson, M.D., Marshall, S.A., Hanner, R. and Norrbom, A.L. 2011. The Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 15, May 24 2011, available online at doi: 10.3752/cjai.2011.15

Glossary

bulla: a dark, blister-like bubbling of the wing membrane.
coxa: basal leg segment
flagellum: the third and largest part of the antenna, divided into a large first flagellomere and a hair-like arista (made up of barely distinguishable separate flagellomeres)
femur: third leg segment (the first of the two long parts of the leg); located between the trochanter and the tibia.
geniculate: elbowed.
labellum: the terminal part of the proboscis (derived from the lower lip, or labium).
oviscape: tube-like tip of the female abdomen; used to sheath the ovipositor.
pleuron: the lateral part of the thorax.
proboscis: the visible mouthparts projecting below the head.
reticulate: net-like pattern.
scutumscutellum: The visible top of the thorax (the mesonotum) is divided into a main part (scutum) and a small, shelf-like hind part (scutellum).
seta: bristle.
setae: multiple bristles.
setulae: small setae.
subquadrate: almost square in shape.
tarsus: the distal (last) leg segment, subdivided into 5 tarsomeres.
tergites: dorsal plates of the abdominal segments.
tibia: fourth leg segment, located between the femur and the tarsomeres.
tomentum: dense coat of short hairs.
trochanter: second leg segment, located between the coxa basally and the femur distally.
vertex: the dorsal-most region of the head containing the ocellar triangle.