Daniel H. Peach1*
and Peter Belton1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada
* Corresponding author: [email protected]
Daniel H. Peach1*
and Peter Belton1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada
* Corresponding author: [email protected]
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are highly diverse, with over 3500 extant species worldwide. At least 33 species occur in the Yukon Territory. Correct identification of mosquitoes, as well as knowledge of their ecology, natural history, blood-feeding preferences, and ability to vector pathogens are essential for effective control measures and mosquito research. The Yukon is home to unending hordes of mosquitoes, and here we provide a comprehensive guide to their identification and biology. This guide may be of interest to students of Yukon natural history, mosquito-borne diseases, and wetland ecology, as well as mosquito control professionals, and is formatted for convenient printing and use.
Aedes communis (de Geer) (photo by Dan Peach)
The Yukon Territory is home to a variety of different eco-districts, from towering mountains and moist Pacific Maritime conditions in the southwest to coastal plains and Arctic conditions in the north (Smith et al., 2004 ). Mean annual temperatures are below freezing, with mean winter temperatures of around -20 oC and mean temperatures during July, the warmest month, of 10-15 oC (Oswald and Jenyk, 1977). However, The Yukon is a land of extremes. Daily temperature fluctuations of 30 oC are not uncommon (Smith et al. 2004) and the lowest recorded temperature in North America, -63 oC, is from the Territory (Thomson 1958). The Yukon Territory is also home to seemingly unending hordes of mosquitoes. Some of these belong to species that are widespread and abundant, easily surviving cold winters and thriving during brief summer conditions, while others are found in low numbers only in certain habitats, at the very northern margin of their distribution. In the last review of the mosquitoes of the Yukon (Belton & Belton, 1990) a total of 28 species were known to have been recorded from the Territory, with an additional 4 species that probably occur there. Since this review two additional territorial records have been made and three of the species that were thought to exist in the Yukon have been confirmed (Peach 2017, 2018; Peach and Poirier 2020). Changes in the distribution records of several species in British Columbia indicate that there may be additional species in the territory that should be considered when identifying specimens. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated list of mosquitoes known from the Yukon, bringing together the scattered literature on all 33 species known from that territory. We also provide keys to the adult females of Yukon mosquitoes, including those of an additional 5 species that are expected to occur there.
While many of the mosquito-borne viruses found in southern Canada have not been reported from the Yukon, there are two endemic arboviruses vectored by mosquitoes: snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) and Northway virus (NORV). SSHV is an Orthobunyavirus of the California encephalitis virus (CEV) serogroup primarily found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and arctic ground squirrels (Citellus undulatus) (McLean et al., 1972). Aedes communis is thought to be the primary vector of SSHV, though Ae. nigripes, Ae. hexodontus, and Cs. inornata may also be vectors, and the virus has been isolated from a variety of other species (McLean et al., 1972, 1974; Ritter & Feltz, 1974; McLean & Lester, 1984). SSHV can infect humans and livestock and while clinical cases are rare, they do occur (Heath et al., 1989; Meier-Stephenson et al., 2007; Goff et al., 2012; Lau et al., 2017). NORV was originally isolated from mosquitoes in Alaska (Ritter & Feltz, 1974) and has since been found in the Yukon and Northwest Territories (McLean et al., 1977, McLean et al., 1979a, McLean et al. 1979b). Antibodies for NORV have been found in humans and large ungulates (Walters et al., 1999), but no clinical infections have been reported. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) have not been reported from the Yukon (McLean et al., 1974; Artsob, 1990), though Burton & McLintock (1970) did find serum neutralizing antibodies for WEEV in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Northwest Territories. West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) have both been detected in migratory birds in Alaska (Pedersen et al., 2016), and may similarly be present in the Yukon. While mosquito transmission of these pathogens seems unlikely due to the short duration of the growing season, with respect to WNV some climate models predict increasing prevalence in adjacent areas (Chen et al., 2012) which may also indicate increased risk in the Yukon.
Most of the records in the Yukon are the results of collecting in the early to mid 20th century (Dyar, 1919, 1920, 1921; Freeman, 1952; Curtis, 1953), with some sporadic efforts made up to the late 20th century (Nelson 1977; Wood et al. 1979; McLean et al. 1981; McLean & Lester 1984; Wood 1989 pers. comm. in Belton & Belton 1990). However, there is not just a paucity of collecting records but also unevenness in their distribution. Outside of the main transportation corridors most of the Yukon is inaccessible other than on foot, by canoe, or by air, and many of the areas that can be reached by automobile are only accessible on rough, pitted gravel roads. Due to this lack of access most collecting has been done from easily-accessible locations, often close to population centres.
There is a dearth of information on the bionomics of Yukon mosquitoes, and western and northern mosquitoes in general. We have had to rely on information from a variety of other areas to provide a background on some of the species in this guide. While information from adjacent areas such as Alaska or Northern British Columbia is likely comparable, much information comes from much farther afield and one should be aware this may not be reflective of western/northern populations of even the same species.
Nomenclature used here follows Wilkerson et al. (2015) with respect to generic names within the tribe Aedini, and subgeneric names are included to show the earlier name changes found in Darsie & Ward (2005). We also follow Darsie & Ward (2005) in considering Aedes (Ochlerotatus) idahoensis a subspecies of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) spencerii.
For additional information see guides to all Canadian mosquito species by Wood et al. (1979) and Thielman and Hunter (2007), to the mosquitoes of British Columbia by Belton (1983), to the mosquitoes of Alaska by Gjullin et al. (1961), and to the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico, by Darsie & Ward (2005).
General Tips for Mosquito Identification
Watch out for missing scales or setae by checking for empty pits where they should be. Northern specimens seem to have reduced abundance of pale scales, so check for these very carefully in steps that use them. Take care when collecting specimens to keep them as undamaged as possible. The best specimens are adults reared directly from pupae. Characteristics are in hierarchical order of reliability.
Table 1: Checklist of mosquitoes of the Yukon. †Unrecorded but expected to occur in the Yukon.
Aedes (Aedes) cinereus Meigen
Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) campestris Dyar and Knab
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) canadensis (Theobald)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) cataphylla Dyar
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) aboriginis Dyar†
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) churchillensis Ellis and Brust†
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) communis (de Geer)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) decticus Howard, Dyar, and Knab
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) diantaeus Howard, Dyar, and Knab
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes Howard, Dyar, and Knab
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) excrucians (Walker)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fitchii (Felt and Young)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) flavescens (Müller)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) hexodontus Dyar
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) impiger (Walker)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) implicatus Vockeroth
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) intrudens Dyar
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) mercurator Dyar
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigripes (Zetterstedt)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigromaculis (Ludlow)†
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) pionips Dyar
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) provocans (Walker)†
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) pullatus (Coquillett)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) punctor (Kirby)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) riparius Dyar and Knab
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) spencerii ssp. spencerii (Theobald)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) sticticus (Meigen)
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) ventrovittis Dyar†
Anopheles (Anopheles) earlei Vargas
Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) perturbans (Walker)
Culex (Culex) tarsalis Coquillett
Culex (Neoculex) territans Walker
Culiseta (Culiseta) alaskaensis (Ludlow)
Culiseta (Culiseta) impatiens (Walker)
Culiseta (Culiseta) incidens (Thomson)
Culiseta (Culiseta) inornata (Williston)
Culiseta (Culicella) morsitans (Theobald)
We thank Karen Needham of the UBC Beaty Biodiversity Museum for her assistance in collecting and accessing specimens, as well as Catherine Scott and Elton Ko for assistance testing this guide. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
Anderson, J. F., A. J. Main, F. J. Ferrandino, and T. G. Andreadis. 2007. Nocturnal activity of mosqsuitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a West Nile virus focus in Connecticut. J. Med. Entomol. 44:1102-1108.
Anderson, J. F., A. J. Main, P. M. Armstrong, T. G. Andreadis, and F. J. Ferrandino. 2015. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92: 377–393.
Anderson, R., and W. Galloway. 1988. Hosts of Anopheles earlei Vargas (Diptera: Culicidae) in southwestern Manitoba. J. Med. Entomol. 25: 149–150.
Artsob, H. 1990. Arbovirus activity in Canada - Artsob 1990, pp. 249–258. In Calisher, C. (ed.), Hemorrhagic Fever with Ren. Syndr. Tick- Mosquito-Borne Viruses. Arch. Virol. Suppl. Vol 1. Springer, Vienna, Austria.
Barr, A., and W. Balduf. 1965. Aedes decticus Howard, Dyar, and Knab in Minnesota. Mosq. News. 25: 344.
Bartlett-Healy, K., W. Crans, and R. Gaugler. 2008. Phonotaxis to amphibian vocalizations in Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 101: 95–103.
Bartlett-Healy, K., W. Crans, and R. Gaugler. 2009. Vertebrate hosts and phylogenetic relationships of amphibian trypanosomes from a potential invertebrate vector, Culex territans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Parasitol.. 95: 381-387.
Batzer, D. P., and R. D. Sjorgen (1986). Larval habitat characteristics of Coquillettidia perturbans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Minnesota. Can. Ent.118: 1193-1998.
Becker, N., D. Petric, M. Zgomba, C. Boase, M. Minoo, C. Dahl, and A. Kaiser. 2010. Mosquitoes and Their Control Second Edition. Springer, Heidelberg.
Belton, E. M., and P. Belton. 1990. A review of mosquito collecting in the Yukon. J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia. 87: 35–37.
Belton, P. 1983. The Mosquitoes of British Columbia, Nat. Hist. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria, Canada.
Benach, J.L., and W. J. Crans. 1973. Larval development and transmission of Foleyella flexicauda Schacher and Crans, 1973 (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Culex territans. J. Parasitol. 59: 797-800.
Börstler, J., H. Jöst, R. Garms, A. Krüger, E. Tannich, N. Becker, J. Schmidt-Chanasit, and R. Lühken. 2016. Host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in Germany. Parasites and Vectors. 9: 1–14.
Bosak, P. J., and W. J. Crans (2002). The structure and function of the larval siphon and spiracular apparatus of Coquillettidia perturbans. J. Am. Mosquito Contr. 18: 280-283.
Briegel, H., A. Waltert, and A. Kuhn. 2001. Reproductive physiology of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to flight potential. J. Med. Entomol. 38: 557–65.
Brust, R. 1980. Dispersal behavior of adult Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans. Can. Entomol. 112: 31–42.
Burton, A., and J. McLintock. 1970. Further evidence of western encephalitis infection in Saskatchewan mammals and birds and in reindeer in Northern Canada. Can. Vet. J. 11: 232–235.
Caillouët, K. A., J. C. Carlson, D. Wesson, and F. Jordan. 2008. Colonization of abandoned swimming pools by larval mosquitoes and their predators following Hurricane Katrina. J. Vector Ecol. 33: 166–172.
Carpenter, S., and W. LaCasse. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). University of California Press, Berkeley.
Chen, C.-C., T. Epp, E. Jenkins, C. Waldner, P. S. Curry, and C. Soos. 2012. Predicting weekly variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) West Nile virus infection in a newly endemic region, the Canadian prairies. J. Med. Entomol. 49: 1144–1153.
Clark, G. G., C. L. Crabbs, C. L. Bailey, C. H. Calisher, and G. B. Craig Jr. 1986. Identification of Aedes campestris from New Mexico: with notes on the isolation of western equine encephalitis and other arboviruses. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 2: 529–534.
Cupp, E. W., K. Klinger, H. K. Hassan, L. M. Viguers, and T. R. Unnasch (2003). Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 495-500.
Curtis, L. C. 1953. Observations on mosquitoes at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (Culicidae: Diptera). Can. Entomol. 85: 353–370.
Darsie, R. F., and R. A. Ward. 1981. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico., Mosq. Syst. Suppl. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Denke, P. M., J. E. Lloyd, and J. L. Littlefield (1996). Elevational distribution of mosquitoes in a mountainous area of southeastern Wyoming. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 12: 8-16.
Dyar, H. 1919. The Mosquitoes Collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18 (Diptera: Culicidae), pp. 31–33. In Hewitt, C. (ed.), Rep. Can. Arct. Exped. 1913-18 Vol III Insects. Ottawa, Canada.
Dyar, H. 1920. The mosquitoes of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus. VIII: 97–100.
Dyar, H. 1921. The Mosquitoes of Canada. Trans. R. Can. Inst. 13: 71–120.
Eisen, L., B. B.G. Bolling, C. D. Blair, B. J. Beaty, and C. G. Moore. (2008). Mosquito species richness, composition, and abundance along habitat-climate-elevations in the Northern Colorado Front Range. J. Med. Entomol. 45: 800-811.
Fallis, S. P., and K. R. Snow (1983). Distribution of the eggs of Aedes punctor (Diptera: Culicidae). Ecol. Entomol. 8: 139-144.
Fox, A. S. (1994). Autogenous-anautogenous oviposition in Culiseta inornate from Manitoba, Canada. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 10: 125-126.
Freeman, T. 1952. Interim Report of the Distribution of the Mosquitoes Obtained in the Northern Insect Survey. Defence Research Board of Ottawa. Technical Report No. 1.
Frohne, W. 1951. Seasonal incidence of mosquitoes in the upper Cook Inlet, Alaska. Mosq. News. 11: 213–216.
Frohne, W. 1953. Natural history of Culiseta impatiens (Wlk.), (Diptera, Culicidae), in Alaska. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 103–118.
Gaston, A. J., J. M. Hipfner, and D. Campbell. 2002. Heat and mosquitoes cause breeding failures and adult mortality in an arctic-nesting seabird. Ibis. 144: 185–191.
Giberson, D. J., K. Dau-Schmidt, and M. Dobrin. 2007. Mosquito species composition, phenology and distribution (Diptera: Culicidae) on Prince Edward Island. Entomol. Soc. J. Acadian Entomol. Soc. 3: 7–27.
Gilardi, J. W., and W. L. Hilsenhoff. 1992. Distribution, abundance, larval habitats, and phenology of Spring Aedes mosquitoes in Wisconsin (Diptera: Culicidae). Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 80: 35–50.
Giordano, B. V., S. Kaur, and F. F. Hunter. 2017. West Nile virus in Ontario: A twelve-year analysis of human case prevalence, mosquito surveillance, and climate data. PLoS ONE 12: e0183568
Giordano, B. V., K. Turner, and F. F. Hunter. 2018. Geospatial analysis and seasonal distribution of West Nile virus vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Ontario. Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15: 614.
Gjullin, C., and G. Eddy. 1972. The Mosquitoes of the Northwestern United States. US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1447. 111.
Gjullin, C. M., R. I. Sailer, A. Stone, and B. V. Travis. 1961. The Mosquitoes of Alaska. Agric. Res. Serv. USDA. 1–98.
Gruia-Gray, J., and S. S. Desser. 1992. Cytopathological observations and epizootiology of frog erythrocytic virus in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). J. Wildl. Dis. 28: 34-41.
Goddard, L. B., A. E. Roth, W. K. Reisen, and T. W. Scott. 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1385–1391.
Goff, G., H. Whitney, and M. A. Drebot. 2012. Roles of host species, geographic separation, and isolation in the seroprevalence of Jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses in Newfoundland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 6734–6740.
Harrigan , R. J., H. A. Thomassen, W. Buermann, and T. B. Smith. (2014). A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change. Glob. Change Biol. 20: 2417-2425.
Hayes, R. O. 1961. Host preferences of Culiseta melanura and allied mosquitoes. Mosq. News.
Hearle, E. 1926. The mosquitoes of the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, and their control. Nat. Res. Counc. Canada, Rep. 17. 94
Heath, S. E., H. Artsob, R. J. Bell, and R. J. Harland. 1989. Equine encephalitis caused by snowshoe hare (California serogroup) virus. Can. Vet. J. 30: 669–671.
Hocking, B., W. Richards, and C. Twinn. 1950. Observations on the bionomics of some northern mosquito species (Culicidae: Diptera). Can. J. Res. 28: 58–80.
Hudson, J. E. 1978. Canada’s national mosquito? Mass-resting of Anopheles earlei (Diptera: Culicidae) females in a beaver lodge in Alberta. Can. Entomol. 110: 1345–1346.
Hudson, J. E. (1983). Seasonal succession and relative abundance of mosquitoes attacking cattle in central Alberta. Mosq. News 43: 143-146.
Jaenson, T. 1985. Attraction to mammals of male mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes diantaeus in Sweden. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1: 195–198.
Jenkins, D. W. 1948. Ecological observations on the mosquitoes of Central Alaska. Mosq. News. 8: 140–147.
Kevan, P. 1972. Insect pollination of high arctic flowers. J. Ecol. 60: 831–847.
Kim, B., T. G. Smith, and S. S. Desser. 1998. The life history and host specificity of Hepatozoon clamatae (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and ITS-1 nucleotide sequence variation of Hepatozoon species of frogs and mosquitoes from Ontario. J Parasitol 84: 789-797.
Kramer, L., J. Hardy, W. Reeves, S. Presser, M. Bowen, and B. Eldridge. 1993. Vector competence of selected mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) for California strains of Northway virus (Bunyaviridae: Bunyavirus). J. Med. Entomol. 3: 607–613.
Kroeger, I., M. Liess, and S. Duquesne. 2014. Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field. J. Vector Ecol. 39: 103–111.
Lau, L., B. Wudel, K. Kadkhoda, and Y. Keynan. 2017. Snowshoe hare virus causing meningoencephalitis in a young adult from northern Manitoba, Canada. Open Forum Infect. Dis. 4: 514–34.
Lewis, D. J., and Webber, R. A. (1985). Seasonal composition and relative abundance of anthropophilic mosquito species in subarctic Quebec. J. Am. Mosq. Control 1: 521-523.
Lysyk, T. J. (2010). Species abundance and seasonal activity of mosquitoes on cattle facilities in southern Alberta, Canada. J. Med. Entomol. 47: 32-43.
Maire, A. 1982. Selectivity by six snow-melt mosquito species for larval habitat in Quebec subarctic string bogs. Mosq. News. 42: 236–243.
McLean, D., S. Bergman, E. Graham, G. Greenfield, J. Olden, and R. Patterson. 1974. California encephalitis virus prevalence in Yukon mosquitoes during 1973. Can. J. Public Heal. 65: 23–28.
McLean, D., E. Goddard, E. Graham, G. Hardy, and K. Purvin-Good. 1972. California encephalitis virus isolations from Yukon mosquitoes. Am. J. Epidemiol. 95: 347–355.
McLean, D., P. Grass, B. Judd, L. Ligate, and K. Peter. 1977. Bunyavirus isolations from mosquitoes in the western Canadian Arctic. J. Hyg. (Lond). 79: 61–71.
McLean, D., P. Grass, and B. Judd. 1979a. Bunyavirus infection rates in Canadian arctic mosquitoes, 1978. Mosq. News. 39: 364–367.
McLean, D., P. Grass, B. Judd, and K. J. Stolz. 1979b. Bunyavirus development in arctic and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as revealed by glucose oxidase staining and immunofluorescence. Arch Virol. 62: 313–322.
McLean, D., B. Judd, and S. Shives. 1981. Snowshoe hare virus infections in Canadian Arctic mosquitoes during 1980. Mosq. News. 41: 287–290.
McLean, D., and S. Lester. 1984. Isolations of snowshoe hare virus from Yukon mosquitoes, 1983. Mosq. News. 44: 200–203.
McLintock, J., A. Burton, J. McKiel, R. Hall, and J. Rempel. 1970. Known mosquito hosts of western encephalitis virus in Saskatchewan. J. Med. Entomol. 7: 446–454.
McLintock, J., P. Curry, R. Wagner, M. Leung, and J. Iversen. 1976. Isolation of snowshoe hare virus from Aedes implicatus larvae in Saskatchewan. Mosq. News. 36: 233–237.
Meier-Stephenson, V., J. Langley, M. Drebot, and H. Artsob. 2007. Encephalitis in the summer: A case of snowshoe hare (California serogroup) virus infection in Nova Scotia. Canada Commun. Dis. Rep. 33: 1.
Morris, C. D., and R. H. Zimmerman. (1981) Epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in upstate New York, USA. III. Population dynamics and vector potential of adult Culiseta morsitans (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 18: 313-316.
Müllerová, J., J. Elsterová, J. ?erný, O. Ditrich, J. Žárský, L. E. Culler, H. Kampen, D. Walther, S. J. Coulson, D. R?žek, and L. Grubhoffer. 2018. No indication of arthropod-vectored viruses in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected on Greenland and Svalbard. Polar Biol. 41:1581-1586
Nelson, J. 1977. Mosquito control in the Yukon Territory, Canada. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
Oliver, J., and J. J. Howard (2011). Fecundity of wild-caught gravid Culiseta morsitans (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 48: 196-201.
Oswald, E. T., and J. P. Senyk. 1977. Ecoregions of Yukon Territory. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service. Pacific Forestry Research Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-164. 115 p.
Packer, M. J., and P. S. Corbett (1989). Seasonal emergence, host-seeking activity, age composition and reproductive biology of the mosquito Aedes punctor. Ecol. Entomol. 14: 433-442.
Panyukova, E. N. (2019). The fauna of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Pechora-Ilych nature reserve (Komi Republic). Entomol. Rev. 99: 64-69.
Peach, D. A. H. 2017. First record of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) spencerii (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Yukon. J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia. 114: 65–67.
Peach, D. A. H. 2018. First record of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Yukon. J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia. 115:123-125.
Peach, D. A. H., and G. Gries (2016). Nectar thieves or invited pollinators? A case study of tansy flowers and common house mosquitoes. Arthropod-Plant Inte. 10: 497-506.
Peach, D. A. H., and L. M. Poirier. 2020. New distribution records and range extensions of mosquitoes in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia 117 (In Press) (bioRxiv; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.24.919233)
Pedersen, K., D. R. Marks, E. Wang, G. Eastwood, S. C. Weaver, S. M. Goldstein, D. R. Sinnett, and T. J. De Liberto. 2016. Widespread detection of antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and turlock viruses in various species of wild birds from across the United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95: 206–211.
Poliakova, E. P., and N. P. Gomojunova (1973). Ecological peculiarities of some species of bloodsucking mosquitoes from central Chukotka. Parazitologiia 7: 327-330. [In Russian]
Philip, C. 1943. Flowers as a suggested source of mosquitoes during encephalitis studies, and incidental mosquito records in the Dakotas in 1941. J. Parasitol. 29: 328–329.
Pierson, J. W. and C. D. Morris (1981). Epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate New York, USA. IV. Distribution of Culiseta larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a freshwater swamp. J. Med. Entomol. 19: 423-428.
Pritchard, G., and P. J. Scholfield (1983). Survival of Aedes larvae in constant area ponds in constant area ponds in southern Alberta. Can. Ent. 115: 183-188.
Reeves, W. K., M. S. Breidenbaugh, E. E. Thomas, and N. Glowacki. 2013. Mosquitoes of Thule Air Base, Greenland. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 29: 383–384.
Reiskind, M. H., R. H. Griffin, M. S. Janairo, and K. A. Hopperstad. 2017. Mosquitoes of field and forest: the scale of habitat segregation in a diverse mosquito assemblage. Med. Vet. Entomol. 31: 44–54.
Reisen. W. K., Y. Fang, and V. M. Martinez. (2006). Effects of temperature on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 43: 309-317.
Rempel, J., W. Riddell, and E. McNelly. 1946. Multiple feeding habits of Saskatchewan mosquitoes. Can. J. Res. 24e: 71–78.
Ritter, D. G., and E. T. Feltz. 1974. On the natural occurrence of California encephalitis virus and other arboviruses in Alaska. Can. J. Microbiol. 20: 1359–1366.
Roth, D., B. Henry, S. Mak, M. Fraser, M. Taylor, M. Li, K. Cooper, A. Furnell, Q. Wong, and M. Morshed. (2010). West Nile virus range expansion into British Columbia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16: 1251-1258.
Sch?fer, M., and J. O. Lunstr?m (2001). Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna characteristics of forested wetland in Sweden. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94: 576-582.
Schopen, S., M. Labuda, and B. Beaty. 1991. Vertical and venereal transmission of California group viruses by Aedes triseriatus and Culiseta inornata mosquitoes. Acta Virol. 35: 373–382.
Shahosseini, N., G. Wong, C. Frederick, and G. P. Kobinger. (2020). Mosquito species composition and abundance in Quebec, Eastern Canada. J. Med. Entomol. (in press) (doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa020).
Shepard, J. J., T. G. Andreadis, M. C. Thomas, and G. Molaei. 2016. Host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in Connecticut, USA. Parasites and Vectors. 9.
Smith, C., J. Meikle, C. Roots, and (Eds.). 2004. Ecoregions of the Yukon Territory: Biophysical Properties of Yukon Landscapes, PARC Tech. Bull. No. 04-01. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada.
Tamarina, N. A., and K. V. Aleksandrova. (1984) Biology of the mosquito Aedes impiger and its possible role as a phenological indicator. Parazitologiia 18: 473-478. [In Russian]
Thielman, A. C., and F. F. Hunter. 2007. A photographic key to adult female mosquito species of Canada (Diptera: Culicidae). Can. J. Arthropod Identif. 4:1-116.
Thomson, A. 1958. Coldest temperature in Canada. Mon. Weather Rev. 86: 298.
Triebenbach, A. N., S. J. Vogl, L. Lotspeich-Cole, D. S. Sikes, G. M. Happ, and K. Hueffer. (2010) Detection of Francisella tularensis in Alaskan mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and assessment of a laboratory model for transmission. J. Med. Entomol. 47: 639-648.
Trueman, D. W., and S. B. McIver (1986). Temporal patterns of host-seeking activity of mosquitoes in Algonquin Park, Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 64: 731-737.
Turell, M. J., D. J. Dohm, M. R. Sardelis, M. L. O’guinn, T. G. Andreadis, and J. A. Blow. 2005. An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J. Med. Entomol. 42: 57–62
Walters, L. L., S. J. Tirrell, and R. E. Shope. 1999. Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60: 806–821. 81: 371-380.
Wang, Z.-M., D. Xing, Z.-M. Wu, W.-J. Yao, W. Gang, D.-S. Xin, Y.-F. Jiang, R.-D. Xue, Y.-D. Dong, C.-X. Li, X.-X. Guo, Y.-M. Zhang, and T.-Y. Zhao. 2012. Biting activity and host attractancy of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Manzhouli, China. J. Med. Entomol. 49: 1283–1288
West, D. F., and W. C. Black IV 1998. Breeding structure of three snow pool Aedes mosquito speces in northern Colorado. Heredity 81: 371-380.
Wilkerson, R. C., Y. M. Linton, D. M. Fonseca, T. R. Schultz, D. C. Price, and D. A. Strickman. 2015. Making mosquito taxonomy useful: A stable classification of tribe Aedini that balances utility with current knowledge of evolutionary relationships. PLoS One. 10: 1–26.
Wood, D. M., P. T. Dang, and R. A. Ellis. 1979. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada Part 6: The Mosquitoes of Canada - Diptera: Culicidae, Insects Arachn. Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Peach, D.H., McCann, S., & Belton, P. 2021. A Guide to the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 43: 48pp. doi:10.3752/cjai.2021.43