ISSN 1911-2173


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Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the northeastern Nearctic region

CJAI 05, February 19, 2008
doi: 10.3752/cjai.2008.05

Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K.B. Cheung

Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1


Appendix 1. Glossary of scientific terms

Note: for abbreviations of Canadian provinces/territories and American States, and for acronyms of specimen depositories see the pertinent sections under Material and Methods.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | M | N | O | P | R | Sc | Si | T | V | X

acarinarium: space between base of tergum 2 and posterior overhang of tergum 1 used to accommodate symbiontic mites by all species of the genus Parancistrocerus (see also Biology section). Compared to other genera (especially the closely related Stenodynerus, which lacks the acarinarium), the space between the two terga is enlarged and less sculptured in Parancistrocerus.

aculeate: the Aculeata include the stinging members within the order Hymenoptera (bees, ants and wasps).

aedeagus: intromittent organ (‘penis’) of male insects.

Afrotropical: biogeographic region that includes sub-Saharan Africa.

allometric: size-related variation of shape,

allopatric: possessing geographic ranges that do not overlap.

areola, pl. areolae (adj.: areolate): cuticular surface structure in which smaller or larger smooth areas are separated from each other by narrow ridges or wrinkles.

auctt.: abbreviation for “auctorum” (Lat. for “of authors”). After a species name it indicates misidentifications. For instance, “Euodynerus auranus (= E. boscii auctt.)” means that E. auranus was misidentified as E. boscii by some authors.

basitarsus: basal segment of tarsus.

carina: linear, crest-like elevation.

caste: a class of morphologically distinct individuals within a colony of social insects, adapted to performing different tasks within the colony.

cephalic foveae: pair of paramedian pits, unique to Eumeninae, situated behind hind ocelli on the vertex. In some species the foveae are coalescent, forming a single median pit. The foveae represent external openings of dermal glands.

clypeus: sclerite below frons.

coalescent: fused or merged.

confluent: fused or merged.

corona: in Vespinae the pale median frontal spot between and above the antennae.

costa: wing vein at leading edge of fore wing, extending from base of wing almost to apex.

costal scale: scale- or ridge-like elevation ventrally at very base of costa. This term is newly introduced here.

coxa: small basal joint of insect leg.

dorsal groove (of mesopleuron): longitudinal groove in centre of mesopleuron, posteriorly ending in scrobal furrow.

digitus: inner lobe of paramere of male genitalia.

discal: on disc (as opposed to marginal area) of sclerite (e.g., discal spots).

discoidal cell: see Fig. A4.5.

eusocial: reproductive strategy that entails sterile castes (‘workers’), cooperative parental care and overlapping generations.

extralimital: occurring outside a certain, defined geographic area; used here to refer to taxa that occur outside the area covered by this Atlas.

fascia, pl. fasciae: transverse band (used here only for pale markings on metasoma).

femur: part of insect leg between tibia and trochanter.

ferruginous: of a rustlike red colour.

flagellum: elongate apical portion of antenna beyond the two basal joints (scape and pedicel).

flagellomere: one article of flagellum.

frontal: pertaining to frons.

gena: cheek, lateral part of head behind compound eye and in front of occipital carina.

groundplan: a phylogenetic term that refers to the set of character states possessed by the hypothetical ancestor of a given taxonomic group (e.g., a genus or family).

Holarctic: biogeographic region that includes Nearctic and Palaearctic.

humeral angle: anterior, dorsolateral corner of pronotum.

humeral carina: carina that extends posteriorly from humeral angle, originating anteriorly from pronotal carina.

impunctate: without punctures.

inquiline: a species that lives with social species in their nest.

interantennal prominence: median frontal prominence between antennal sockets.

interantennal spot: pale spot between (and slightly above) antennae, ventrally sometimes extending to clypeal suture.

interocular distance: distance between the compound eyes measured across the frons.

jugal lobe: posterobasal lobe of hind wing (absent in Vespinae).

malar space: area between compound eye and base of mandible.

marginal cell: see Fig. A4.5.

medial cell: see Fig. A4.5.

melanic: colour form with black markings more developed than average.

mesopleuron: largest sclerite laterally on mesosoma; in Hymenoptera extending all the way to midventral suture. Pertains to segment 2 of insect thorax.

mesosoma: middle portion of body of Hymenoptera Apocrita between head and metasoma; composed of thorax plus abdominal segment 1 (= propodeum).

metanotum: posteriormost dorsal sclerite of thorax in front of propodeum. Pertains to segment 3 of insect thorax.

metapleuron: posteriormost lateral sclerite of thorax in front of propodeum. Pertains to segment 3 of insect thorax.

metasoma: posterior portion of body of Hymenoptera Apocrita; composed of all abdominal segments except segment 1, which is fused to thorax. Synonym: gaster.

microtomentum: dense, extremely short pubescence, giving matt appearance to cuticular surfaces.

Nearctic: biogeographic region that includes North America (Canada, United States, northern portions of Mexico).

nominate: the nominate subspecies of a species is the one with the same name as the species, e.g., Ancistrocerus antilope ssp. antilope.

notauli: inner pair of grooves on scutum.

occipital carina: U-shaped carina separating posterior from lateral and dorsal surfaces of head; if fully developed extending to base of mandibles ventrally.

ocellar: pertaining to ocelli.

ocellus: simple (as opposed to compound) eye on vertex, occurring in set of three (single median, anterior; paired lateral, posterior).

ocular sinus: emargination of median margin of compound eye.

oplomerocephaly (adj. oplomerocephalic): rare, abnormal condition in some Ancistrocerus species where male mandible between teeth 2 and 3 and apex of male clypeus is deeply emarginate.

omaulus: carina on anterior portion of mesopleuron extending from near pronotum (when fully developed) posteroventrally.

orbit: imaginary border around compound eye (only inner orbits are referred to here).

Oriental: biogeographic region that includes southern part of Asia.

Palaearctic: biogeographic region that includes Europe, Africa north of Sahara, and northern part of Asia.

paramere: large, paired lateral lobes of male genitalia, terminating in long posterior spine in Eumeninae.

parategula: small lobe-like, sometimes hooked, posterolateral projection of (meso-)scutum, situated next to posteromedial margin of tegula.

pedicel: small second joint of antenna, between scape and flagellum.

petiolate: stalked; used for metasoma when basal portion is conspicuously narrowed over a distance.

postocular band/spot: pale band/spot on gena.

pronotal carina: transverse anterior carina of pronotum separating anterior declivity from posterior horizontal portion.

pronotal fovea: small anterolateral pit of pronotum.

pronotal lobe: small, lobe-like posterolateral projection of pronotum covering mesothoracic spiracle.

pronotum: anteriormost dorsal sclerite of thorax in front of scutum. Pertains to segment 1 of insect thorax.

propodeal concavity: large, more or less concave, medial area of propodeum usually defined by dorsal and lateral ridges.

propodeal valvula: triangular, rounded or subrectangular, ventrolateral posterior projection of propodeum, usually thin and somewhat translucent; not to be confused with submarginal carina of propodeum which, if present, is situated above valvula.

propodeum: first abdominal segment of Hymenoptera Apocrita, broadly fused to thorax and sharply delimited from rest of abdomen (‘metasoma’) by extreme constriction.

rake setae: enlarged setae on outer margin of fore tarsus (in Vespidae only developed on basitarsus) that help ground nesting species in removing dirt from their burrows.

rugose: with wrinkled cuticular surface structure (noun: rugosity).

scape: large basal joint of antenna (note that the small, spherical basal portion through which the scape is articulated to the head capsule is not a separate joint).

sclerite: a plate-like, hardened, largely inflexible portion of the cuticle, separated from other plate-like areas by sutures or membranes.

scrobal furrow: furrow on upper mesopleuron that extends dorsally and posteroventrally from scrobe; gives rise anteriorly to dorsal groove.

scrobe: small pit behind centre of upper mesopleuron.

scutum (= mesoscutum): largest dorsal sclerite of mesosoma. Pertains to segment 2 of insect thorax.

scutellum: small dorsal sclerite of mesosoma behind scutum. Pertains to segment 2 of insect thorax.

septum: thin dividing wall.

sessile: without a stalk-like base (used for base of metasoma, opposite of petiolate).

seta: hair or bristle.

silvicolous: inhabiting wooded areas.

sp. restit.: abbreviation for Latin species restituta; referring to a species that was synonymized with another species or reduced to subspecies rank after its description, and later reinstated as a valid species.

spicules: minute, spine-like hairs.

stat. n.: abbreviation for new status; used in taxonomy to denote a new rank for a species-group name (e.g., when a subspecies is elevated to species rank or a species is demoted to subspecies rank).

sternum, pl. sterna: ventral sclerite of metasoma.

stylopized: parasitized by Strepsiptera.

subantennal spot: black median spot of frons just above clypeus; used in Vespinae and Polistinae.

subdiscoidal cell: see Fig. A4.5.

subequal: approximately equal.

submarginal carina: more or less projecting carina near ventral, posterolateral extreme of propodeum, situated just above propodeal valvula.

submarginal cell: see Fig. A4.5.

supersedure: a nest of a solitary species taken over by another species.

sympatric: sharing same geographic range.

tarsomere: one segment of tarsus.

tarsus: distal part of insect leg, consisting of five joints.

taxon, pl. taxa: a unit in biological classification of unspecified rank. For instance, a species, a genus and a family are taxa at different ranks.

tegula: small, shield-like plate above base of fore wing.

tibia: part of insect leg between tarsus and femur.

trochanter: small second joint of insect leg from basal.

tyloid: welt or swelling on male flagellomere.

vertex: top of head between compound eyes including ocellar area.

xanthic: colour form with yellow or ivory markings more developed than average.


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