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Revision of the World species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)
CJAI 28 -- September 25, 2015
doi: 10.3752/cjai.2015.28
Henri Goulet1, Caroline Boudreault1 and Nathen M. Schiff2

15. Xeris umbra Goulet, n. sp.

Fig. C15.1 (female habitus)

Fig. C15.2 (male habitus)

Type material

Holotype. Female (OLML), in good condition except for five apical flagellomeres on left antenna missing, labelled [White] “China, Yunnan prov. 1.-19.7.1992 Heishui 35 km N of Lijiang 27, 13 N 100, 19 E Lgt. S.Becvar”; [White] “LI egg. 1992/93ex Coll.j.Halada”; [Red] “HOLOTYPE  Xeris umbra ♀ H. Goulet, 2015”.

Paratypes. (6 males). CHINA: Yannan, Heishui 35 km N of Lijiang 27, 13 N 100,19 E (2 M, OLML); Yunnan, 25 km E Zhongdian 22.6.1998 3500 m Leg. S. Muzin (3 M, OLML); Yunnan, Yulongshan Mts. 3500-4000m 27.10N 100.13E 16-19/6. 1993 Vίt Kubàň (1 M, OLML).

Diagnostic combination

Among specimens with a yellowish-white fore wing cell C cell and with vertex bearing less dense pits (usually not touching) and finer pits (0.05–0.25 times of lateral ocellus) between the eye dorsal edge and the occiput outside postocellar area [umbra, malaisei, pallicoxae, spectrum, xanthoceros and xylocola], X. umbra is recognized in both sexes by the long setae on the clypeus (setae 1.0–1.4 times as long as length of lateral ocellus) and the very fine and poorly outlined pits on metanotum posterior to cenchrus and laterally on metascutellum, and in females by the small teeth on the apical 0.3 of cornus.



Color. Head black except for white spot (rarely missing) on gena dorsal to middle of eye; white spot often not clearly outlined and small, and with ventral edge not extending to genal ridge (Fig. C15.3); antenna black; last maxillary palpomere black (Fig. C15.3). Thorax black (Fig. C15.1). Legs with coxae, trochanters, basal 0.8 of femora black, and apical 0.5 of tarsomeres 1 black, tarsomeres 2–5 brown; apical 0.2 of femora, tibiae and basal 0.5 of tarsomeres 1 light reddish brown (Fig. B2.106 and Fig. C15.1). Fore wing clear except for lightly tinted band in apical 0.25, and along a central band outlined by cells 2CU, 3CU, 1M and 1R1 (as in Fig. B2.67); cell C very light yellow (paler in old specimens) (as in Fig. B2.40); most of area ventral to anal cells yellowish brown; veins black but white at base of stigma on both sides of junction with vein 1r-rs (as in Fig. B2.40). Abdomen black (Fig. C15.1). Sheath with apical section black and basal section reddish brown.

Head. Distance between nearest eye edge and lateral ocellus edge about 1.5 times as long as distance between inner edges of lateral ocelli (as in Fig. B2.20). Setae on clypeus setae 1.0–1.4 times as long as length of lateral ocellus (Fig. B2.102 and Fig. C15.3). Eye in lateral view (N = 1) with its maximum height 1.5 times as long as its maximum length (Figs. B2.102 and Fig. C15.3), and maximum height of eye 0.46 times as long as maximum height of head (from transverse ridge on gena above mandible to top of head (Fig. B2.102), measurements as in Fig. B2.8). Gena in dorsal view with maximum distance between outer edges clearly wider than maximum distance between outer edges of eyes (as in Fig. B2.43), in frontal view outer edges of eyes clearly not intersecting genae (as in Fig. B2.5); in lateral view with distance between outer edge of eye and genal ridge 0.4 times as long as maximum length of eye (Figs. B2.102 and Fig. C15.3), measurements as in Fig. B2.77), with few or no pits ventral to genal ridge, and with many small size pits (diameter of pit 0.1 times lateral ocellus diameter) between outer edge of eye and genal ridge (mainly near eye) (Figs. B2.102 and Fig. C15.3). Transverse ridge above mandible narrow, sharp and mainly smooth (Fig. C15.3). Vertex scarcely pitted and pits medium in size (diameter of pits 0.2–0.4 times lateral ocellus diameter) (as in Fig. B2.43); pits present from dorsoposterior edge of eye to occiput outside postocellar area, absent on most of postocellar area, pits dense medium in size along all of shallowly outlined and gutter-like median furrow but a little more widespread near lateral ocelli (as in Fig. B2.43).

Thorax. Pronotum in dorsal view along lateral margin with irregular ridges between large teeth (as in Fig. B2.95) and with a wide shiny surface medially, surface widest anteriorly with a deep impression behind middle (as in Fig. B2.134, insert); in lateral view with coarse polygonal pits on 0.5 of posterior surface (as in Fig. B2.97). Propleuron in lateral view with small polygonal pits over most of surface (as in Fig. C12.7); in ventral view generally with dense teeth often forming shallow pits with shallowly impressed meshed of microsculpture in between (Fig. B2.22). Transcutal furrow of mesonotum obscured by coarse pits, thus mesoscutum and axilla apparently fused (Fig. C15.5). Metanotum with surface posterior to cenchrus and lateral 0.5 of metascutellum finely pitted (pit 0.1 times as wide as diameter of lateral ocellus) (Fig. B2.104). Fore wing in middle 0.3 of vein 2A diverging considerably (as in Fig. C12.6) away from wing edge, and then less (as in Fig. C12.6) abruptly curved away from wing edge; vein 3A absent.

Abdomen. Tergum 8 on central area consisting mainly of partly fused and flat sculpticells forming transverse lines of various lengths, pitted sculpticells uncommon medially and not so deep (Fig. C15.6), and lateral margin shiny on apical 0.5 (as in Fig. B2.141, insert). Tergum 9 with meshes of microsculpture on ventral half below longitudinal furrow near center impressed and sculpticells mainly flat, meshes above longitudinal furrow near center well impressed and sculpticells clearly scale-like (as in Fig. B2.92, insert); median basin with base (outlined by two lateral black longitudinal furrows; N = 1) 0.85 times as wide as its median length, with maximum width of basin 1.3 times as wide as its median length and basin 0.45 times as long medially as median length of cornus (measurements as in Fig. A3.2). Cornus constricted in dorsal view, its minimum width (at constriction) about 0.8 times as wide as maximum width subapically (as in Fig. C1.15); with small teeth in apical 0.3 (Fig. B2.109). Sheath. Basal section 0.36 times as long as apical section (N = 1) (Fig. C15.1); lateral surface of apical section with well-defined ridge (as in Fig. B2.13, insert); length 1.2 times as long as fore wing length. Ovipositor. Lancet with annuli beyond 7 missing; junction of basal and apical sections of sheath aligned between 3rd and 4th annuli; apical section of ovipositor missing, probably major pits present on last 4–5 apical annuli before teeth annuli, and with small to very small pit on all or almost all of preceding annuli up to annulus 5 (as in Fig. C1.18).


Color. Head with dorsal spot behind eye clearly outlined, larger in size than spot in female, and extending to genal ridge (Fig. C15.4). Pronotum dorsally completely black, or black with anterolateral corner yellowish white, or black with anterolateral corner yellowish white extended toward posterolateral corner, or black with yellowish-white band extending to posterolateral corner; anterior vertical surface below anterolateral corner with a black, or brown, or white spot (as in Figs. B2.57, B2.54, B2.55, B2.58). Legs black, or with basal 0.1 of tibiae clearly yellowish white.  (Figs. B2.111 and C15.2). Fore wing almost completely clear except for a light tint around the junction of veins Cu and 2cu-a and cell 1R1 (Fig. C15.2).

Thorax. Metatibia with a shallow to deep notch on dorsal edge in basal 0.25 (C15.2).

Taxonomic notes

Adults of X. umbra are the darkest specimens of Xeris. They are easily distinguished on color pattern and some structural features from all other species of Xeris. They are related to the X. spectrum lineage as shown by the presence of a very small pit on each of the most basal annuli.

Origin of specific epithet

The specific name “umbra” is a noun in apposition meaning “shadow” referring to the very dark color pattern of both sexes.


CHINA, Yunnan.

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