Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification

A Review of the Species of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Genera of Drosophilidae
of Northeastern North America

CJAI 31 -- June 7, 2017

Meredith E. Miller1, Stephen A. Marshall1, and David A. Grimaldi2

1School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada (,

2Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, United States (

| Abstract | Introduction | Checklist | Anatomy | Key to genera | Key to Drosophila species | Acknowledgments | References | PDF | Cite |



Despite the distinguished history of biological research on Drosophila in eastern North America, the northeastern fauna has never been fully reviewed, and there is no useful key to the Drosophila species naturally occurring in eastern North America. Keys are provided here to the 12 genera of Drosophilidae in northeastern North America, illustrated with photomicrographs of external features. Keys are further provided to the 35 species of Drosophila in the region, illustrated with photomicrographs of external features and of the male and female genitalia.  Each species is diagnosed, with its biology and distribution summarized, based on the literature and examination of over 10,000 specimens (for which all records are provided). Important new information includes the most northerly records of Drosophila cardini Sturtevant, and habitat records for the highly invasive agricultural pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Eastern North American species are diagnosed and redescriptions are provided for those members of the Drosophila carsoni, melanica, robusta, and tripunctata groups for which species identification has been vague or uncertain.  This work should facilitate research on the drosophilids of eastern North America through the provision of accessible species-level identification tools and baseline data on general distribution and habitat preferences.

Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (photo by S.A. Marshall)