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The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada
CJAI 03 September 25, 2007

Laurence Packer, Julio A. Genaro and Cory S. Sheffield

York University, Department of Biology, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, Canada, M3J 1P3.

Key to separate the bee genera of eastern Canada
The sexes in bees can be differentiated by counting the number of metasomal terga – 6 in females, 7 in males, or the number of apparent segments of the antennae – 12 in females, 13 in males.  The second antennal segment is sometimes largely retracted within the first, particularly in some wasp-like bees.

1. Forewing with three submarginal cells (Fig 1) 2
- Forewing with two submarginal cells (Fig 2). 22
2. Hind tibial spurs absent (Fig 3). Apis mellifera L.
- Hind tibial spurs present (Fig 4). 3
3. Female usually with hind basitarsus very strongly expanded and with corbicular structure on hind tibia (Fig 5); jugal lobe of hind wing absent (Fig 7). Bombus
- Female lacking strongly expanded hind basitarsus, hind tibia without corbicula (Fig 6); jugal lobe of hind wing present (Fig 8). 4
4. Forewing with posterior portion of second recurrent vein arcuate outwardly making it somewhat S-shaped on the right wing (backwards S on the left wing) (Fig 9). Colletes
- Forewing with posterior portion of second recurrent vein not outwardly arcuate (Fig 10). 5
5. Forewing with basal vein strongly arched (Fig 11); female usually with narrow pseudopygidial area on T5 (Fig 13) [females lacking this area are usually shiny and black with red on metasoma (Fig 185) and lack a scopa on the hind leg (Fig 15)]. 6
- Forewing with basal vein not strongly arched though it may be slightly curved (Fig 12), but not strongly towards the base; T5 usually without pseudopygidial area, but IF present THEN body broad with pattern of white appressed pubescence (Figs 14, 161, 190). 12
6. Female with pseudopygidial area divided by a deep cleft (Fig 17) (may need verification by prodding area with a pin); male with genital opening at extreme apex of metasoma, T7 not recurved anteroventrally (Fig 19); body in both sexes entirely bright metallic green or bronze (Figs 145, 148); posterior surface of propodeum lacking distinct carinate rim (Fig 21). 7
- Female with pseudopygidial area entire (Fig 18) (sometimes appearing cleft due to orientation of minute hairs on surface, this can be checked by prodding with a pin); IF female entirely bright metallic, THEN posterior surface of propodeum entirely surrounded by a strong carina (Fig 22); male with apex of T7 recurved anteroventrally so that genital opening is slightly in front of the apex (Fig 20); male never entirely bright metallic, but IF head and thorax of male bright green THEN metasoma with yellow transverse bands (Fig 132). 9
7. Tegula with inner posterior angle somewhat produced inwardly (Fig 23); female with basitibial plate very short, barely extending beyond apex of femur (Fig 25); T1 and T2 with apical row of simple bristles. Augochloropsis metallica (F.)
- Tegula evenly rounded posteriorly (Fig 24); female with basitibial plate extending well beyond apex of femur (Fig 26); T1 and T2 without bristles. 8
8. Face with paraocular lobe forming an acute, but rounded angle projecting onto clypeus (Fig 27); female with clypeus evenly convex in profile with narrow apical non-metallic area (Fig 27); female S1 with a median keel (Fig 29); male S4 with a straight margin (Fig 31). Augochlora pura (Say)
- Face with paraocular lobe forming at most a right angle onto clypeus (Fig 28); female clypeus with a more extensive non-metallic apical portion that in profile is at a slight angle to the rest of the clypeus (Fig 28); female S1 without median keel (Fig 30); male S4 with a concave margin (Fig 32). Augochlorella aurata (Smith)
9. Head and mesosoma (and often metasoma) brilliant metallic green; male with yellow bands on metasoma; outer wing veins all strong (Fig 33); posterior surface of propodeum encircled by a strong carina (Fig 35); body moderately large, at least 10mm in length (Figs 132, 133). Agapostemon
- Entire body either black (Fig 169), brown (Fig 168) or dull metallic.  IF dull metallic (Fig 162), then body smaller, <7mm and EITHER posterior surface of propodeum not encircled by strong carina (Fig 36) OR one or more apical wing veins weakened (Fig 34) (note that the wing vein character does not always work well for all males). 10
10. Metasoma with hair bands on apical portion of each tergum (Fig 37), the bands may be effaced in older specimens in which they are generally more easily detected laterally. Halictus
- Metasoma either with hair bands on basal portions of terga, (Fig 38) (more apical segments may be entirely covered in pale appressed hairs in some species) or hair bands almost entirely absent (Fig 39). 11
11. Apical wing veins weakened (Fig 34); female with scopa on hind leg (Fig 16) and distinct subapical mandibular tooth (Fig 42) [IF metasoma with reddish markings (uncommon) THEN body neither shiny nor with coarse sculpture]. Lasioglossum
- Apical wing veins strong (Fig 41); female lacking scopa (Fig 15) and sometimes lacking subapical mandibular tooth (Fig 43); metasoma usually with bright red markings, sometimes entirely red (Fig 185), IF entirely black THEN body shiny and usually with coarse sculpture. Sphecodes
12. Axilla produced into a rounded lobe or an angle or spine, clearly not continuing outline of scutellum (Fig 44); body mostly black with bands or spots of pale appressed pubescence (Figs 44, 161, 190) 13
- Axilla not produced, continuing outline of scutellum  (Fig 45); body variously coloured or patterned. 14
13. Female with pseudopygidial area of T5 at least half as long as greatest breadth (Fig 46); S6 with disk reduced to a transverse bar that connects a pair of elongate processes that are almost forceps-like and with coarse spine-like setae at apex (Fig 48) (IF S6 not extruded, the spines at its apex may still be visible) (Fig 46); male pygidial plate with lateral margins parallel posteriorly, widened anteriorly (Fig 50). Triepeolus
- Female with pseudopygidial area of T5 usually less than half as long as greatest breadth (Fig 47); S6 with disk broad and lateral process spatulate with triangular teeth (Fig 49) (IF S6 not extruded but the apex is visible THEN it does not have spines); male pygidial plate with lateral margins convergent posteriorly (Fig 51) Epeolus
14. Body shiny dark blue or dark green-blue, female clypeus with vertical white stripe (Fig 52), and male clypeus with larger white mark (Fig 53); female with weak scopa on hind leg and apex of metasoma pointed and lacking pygidial plate (Fig 55). Ceratina
- Body not shiny blue or dark green-blue, female clypeus without a white median stripe (Fig 54); female with scopa of hind leg present or absent: IF metasoma appearing pointed in female, THEN pygidial plate present (Fig 56); male clypeal colouration variable 15
15 Face with two subantennal sutures (Fig 57); female with facial foveae shallow and entirely covered in short dense velvety hairs (Fig 59), and with propodeal corbicula (Fig 60) . Andrena
- Face with one subantennal suture (Fig 58); female without facial foveae and without propodeal corbicula (Fig 61). 16
16 Integument of metasoma (Fig 62), and often mesosoma, marked with yellow, orange, white  or red, sometimes entirely reddish (Figs 176, 177); female scopa absent (Fig 62); female S6 with specialized bristles (Fig 64). Nomada
- Integument of metasoma not marked with yellow, orange or red (Fig 63); female with scopa present (Fig 63) (except in one very rare species which has no markings on integument); female S6 without specialized bristles (Fig 65). 17
17 Forewing without stigma, marginal cell slender, about 7 times as long as wide (Fig 66); metasoma lacking distinct pale hair bands (Fig 191) Xylocopa virginica (L.)
- Forewing with stigma, marginal cell at most 6 times as long as wide (Figs 67, 68); usually with metasomal hair bands (Figs 174, 175). 18
18 Wings with most closed cells hairless and apical regions strongly papillate; the papillae not giving rise to hairs (Fig 67). Anthophora
- Wings with closed cells with hairs, apical regions not usually strongly papillate (Fig 68). 19
19 Male antenna short (Fig 160); female scopa absent (Fig 15). Epeoloides pilosula (Cresson)
- Male antenna long (Fig 181) to very long (Figs 175, 189); female with scopa (Figs 174, 188). 20
20 Tegula narrowed anteriorly (Fig 69). Melissodes
- Tegula not narrowed anteriorly (Fig 70). 21
21 Both sexes with some shiny, spatulate hairs most easily visible on base of T2 (Figs 71-72) or     arising from suture between mesoscutum and scutellum (Figs 71-72). Svastra obliqua (Say)
- Both sexes lacking modified hairs as above. Peponapis pruinosa (Say)
22 Distance from stigma to distal end of marginal cell little if any longer than stigma, AND, second submarginal cell less than 2/3 as long as first (Fig 73); body small with metallic colouration and pale maculations on metasoma (Fig 182). Perdita
- Marginal cell or submarginal cells not as above (Fig 74). 23
23 Second submarginal cell much shorter than first, usually only half as long; first recurrent vein received by first submarginal cell or meeting first transverse cubital vein (Fig 75), IF second submarginal cell is 2/3 as long as first, THEN first recurrent vein clearly in first submarginal cell (Fig 75); female without scopa (Figs 165, 167, 176, 177). 24
- Second submarginal cell at least 2/3 as long as first and usually receiving first recurrent vein (Fig 76); female with scopa present or absent. 26
24 Jugal lobe of hind wing about ¾ as long as vannal lobe (Fig 77); glossa truncate or bilobed (Fig 79); body black and usually with white or yellow markings on legs and face (Fig 79) but lacking white or yellow integument on metasoma (metasoma occasionally red basally) Hylaeus
- Jugal lobe of hind wing less than ¼ as long as vannal lobe (Fig 78); glossa pointed (Fig 80); body with yellow, orange or red markings on metasoma (Figs 83, 165, 176, 177). 25
25 Apex of marginal cell on wing margin (Fig 81); metasoma lacking discrete patches of pale appressed pubescence, IF metasoma appears spotted, THEN spots are made of coloured integument and not appressed hairs (Fig 83) Nomada
- Apex of marginal cell curved away from wing margin (Fig 82); metasoma with discrete patches of pale appressed pubescence giving a checkered appearance (Fig 84). Holcopasites calliopsidis (Linsley)
26 Axilla produced to a lobe, angle or spine lateral to scutellum (Fig 85). Coelioxys
- Axilla not produced into a lobe, angle or spine lateral to scutellum (Fig 86). 27
27 At least female with facial fovea (Fig 87); both sexes with two subantennal sutures (Fig 89), except rarely in males of shiny black species with yellow on face and legs (Fig. 184). 28
- Both sexes without facial fovea (Fig 88) and with one subantennal suture (Fig 90). 30
28 Female with facial fovea covered in short velvety hairs (Fig 91); both sexes usually with long dense hairs especially on the face of male (Fig 91) and the lateral surface of propodeum with long hairs forming a corbicula in the female (Fig 93). Andrena
- Female with facial fovea lacking hairs (Fig 92); male without face covered in long hairs (Figs 96, 98); female without corbicula on lateral surface of propodeum (Fig 94) 29
29 Female with whitish marks on face (Fig 95); male with most of face below facial foveae (Fig 98) and all legs bright yellow (Fig 151); male with hind tibia without carina along upper margin

Calliopsis andreniformis (Smith)

- Female with face black (Fig 97); male with yellow on face (Fig 98) and yellow markings on legs much reduced to absent (Fig 184); male with hind tibia with dentate carina along upper margin. Protandrena
30 Metasoma with white, yellow or red markings (Fig 99). 31
- Metasoma lacking white, yellow or red markings (Fig 100) 35
31 Female metasomal scopa absent (Fig 101); male metasoma lacking spines or protuberances near apex (Fig 103). Stelis
- Female metasomal scopa present (Fig 102); male metasoma with apical spines or proces (Fig 104). 32
32 Female mandible with at least 5 distinct teeth (Fig 105); arolia absent (Fig 107). Anthidium
- Female mandible with 3 or 4 teeth (Figs 106, 113); arolia present (Fig 108) 33
33 Anterior margin of mesoscutum angularly produced so that there is a sharp edge running from one pronotal lobe to the other (Fig 109); both sexes with 3 mandibular teeth (Figs 111, 112).

Dianthidium simile (Cresson)

- Anterior margin of mesoscutum rounded (Fig 110); female with 4 mandibular teeth (Fig 113), male with 3 (Fig 112). 34
34 Mesopleuron divided into transverse anterior and longitudinal lateral portions by a sharp carina (Fig 114). Anthidiellum notatum (Latreille)
- Mesopleuron not sharply divided into anterior and lateral portions (Fig 115). Paranthidium jugatorium Say
35 Mesopleura with episternal groove present below scrobal groove (Fig 116). Dufourea
- Mesopleura with episternal groove absent below scrobal groove (Fig 117). 36
36 Female with well developed scopa on hind tibia (Fig 118) and less well developed scopa on metasomal sterna; male with yellow clypeus (Fig 120). Macropis
- Female with scopa entirely absent on hind tibia but very well developed on metasomal sterna (Fig 119); male with black clypeus (Fig 121) 37
37 Arolia absent (Fig 122). Megachile
- Arolia present (Fig 123). 38
38 Dorsal surface of propodeum horizontal, short and made up of pits, separated from posterior surface by a carina (Fig 124). Heriades
- Dorsal surface of propodeum not as above, EITHER sloping OR not made up of pits OR not separated from posterior surface by a carina (Fig 125) 39
39 Mesoscutum with parapsidal lines not much longer than broad (Fig 126). Osmia
- Mesoscutum with parapsidal lines elongate (Fig 127). 40
40 Mesosoma elongate (Fig 128); imaginary line tangential to anterior margins of tegulae at mid length of mesoscutum (Fig 130). Chelostoma
- Mesosoma not so elongate (Fig 129); imaginary line tangential to anterior margins of tegulae in anterior half of mesoscutum (Fig 131). Hoplitis

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