Fig 102 (a). Ptilonyssus nivalis female dorsal habitus.

Fig 102 (b). Ptilonyssus nivalis female dorsum.

Fig 102 (c). Ptilonyssus nivalis female venter.

North American host records:
Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting (Knee et al. 2008)

Diagnostic characteristics:
– two dorsal shields, podosomal and fused opisthosomal and pygidial shields- posterior margin of podosomal shield is trilobed
– opisthosomal shield is longer than wide, but not twice as long as wide
– lateral excavation of the posterior portion of the opisthosomal shield
– posterior margin of opisthosomal shield is invaginated forming an inverted V indent
– anterior margin of opisthosomal shield is straight
– st1 st2 and st3 on the sternal shield
– subapical ventral setal pair on tarsus IV are relatively long, one strong spike and one filamentous spike
– six pairs of ventral opisthosomal setae
– three pairs of mesolateral setae
– mesolateral setae all approximately equal in length, there are not two pairs of setae that are twice as long as another setal pair
– subposterior pair of dorsal podosomal setae are less than half the length of the longest mesolateral setae
– paranal setae anterior to anal opening, paranal and postanal setae are unequal in length

Knee, W. 2008. Five new species of Rhinonyssidae (Mesostigmata) and one new species of Dermanyssus
        (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) from birds of Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Parasitology, 94: 348-374.
Knee, W., Proctor, H., and Galloway, T. 2008. Survey of nasal mites (Rhinonyssidae, Ereynetidae, and Turbinoptidae)
        associated with birds in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 140: 364-379.