Fig 116 (a). Ptilonyssus sairae female dorsal habitus.

Fig 116 (b). Ptilonyssus sairae female dorsum.

Fig 116 (c). Ptilonyssus sairae female venter.

North American host records:
Emberizidae:
Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Spicer 1977a, 1987)
Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow (Spicer 1977a, 1987)
Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow (George 1961; Pence and Casto 1976)
Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting (George 1961)
Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow (George 1961; Spicer 1987)
Guiraca caerulea, Blue Grosbeak (Spicer 1978)
Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco (Spicer 1978, 1987)
Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln’s Sparrow (George 1961)
Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow (Spicer 1987)
Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird (Spicer 1987)
Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow (George 1961; Spicer 1987)
Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting (Spicer 1977a, 1987)
Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting (George 1961)
Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak (Pence and Casto 1976)
Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee (Spicer 1978)
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee (George 1961)
Pipilo fuscus, Canyon Towhee (George 1961; Pence and Casto 1976)
Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager (Pence 1975; Pence and Casto 1976)
Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow (George 1961; Pence 1975; Spicer 1987)
Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow (George 1961; Spicer 1987)
Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow (Spicer 1987)
Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler (Spicer 1987)
Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler (Spicer 1987)
Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson’s Warbler (Spicer 1987)
Zonotrichia querula, Harris’s Sparrow (Spicer 1977a, 1987)

Fringillidae:
Carduelis tristis, American Goldfinch (Spicer 1977a, 1987)

Icteridae:
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink (Pence 1975, Pence and Casto 1976)
Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer’s Blackbird (Spicer 1978)

Muscicapidae:
Polioptila albiloris, White-lored Gnatcatcher (Spicer 1987)

Paridae:
Parus carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee (Pence 1972, 1975)

Parulidae:
Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler (Pence and Casto 1976)
Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler (Pence and Casto 1976)
Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler (Pence 1972, 1975; Wilson and Haas 1980; Spicer 1987)
Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler (Pence 1972, 1975)
Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler (Spicer 1977b, 1987)
Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler (Pence 1972, 1973, 1975)
Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler (Pence and Casto 1976)
Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler (Pence and Casto 1976)
Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat (Pence and Casto 1976; Knee et al. 2008)
Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson’s Warbler (Pence and Casto 1976)
Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler (Pence 1972, 1975; Knee et al. 2008)
Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray’s Warbler (Pence 1975)
Parula americana, Northern Parula (Pence 1972, 1975; Pence and Casto 1976)
Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler (Pence 1972, 1975)
Seiurus aurocapillus, Ovenbird (Pence and Casto 1976)
Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart (Pence 1972, 1975)
Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler (Spicer 1977a)
Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler (Spicer 1977a)
Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler (Pence 1975)
Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson’s Warbler (Pence 1975)

Polioptilidae:
Polioptila albiloris, White-lored Gnatcatcher (Spicer 1977b)

Tyrannidae:
Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Pence 1972, 1975)

Diagnostic characteristics:
– two dorsal shields, podosomal and pygidial shields
– posterior margin of podosomal shield is straight
– st1 st2 and st3 off the sternal shield
– subapical ventral setal pair on tarsus IV are relatively long strong spikes
– six pairs of ventral opisthosomal setae
– five pairs of mesolateral setae
– at least two pairs of mesolateral setae twice as long as other mesolateral setae
– subposterior pair of dorsal podosomal setae are less than half the length of the longest mesolateral setae
– paranal setae level with anal opening, paranal and postanal setae are equal or almost equal in length

Note:
– Ptilonyssus sairae and P. japuibensis are members of the “sairae” species complex. The species boundaries
between the members of the “sairae” complex are very indistinct.

References:
Castro, M.P. 1948. Reestruturacao generica da familia Rhinonyssidae Vitzthum 1935 (Acari: Mesostigmata:
        Gamasides) e descraicao de algumas especies novas. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, 18: 253-284.George, J.E. 1961. The nasal mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Acarina: Rhinonyssidae) occurring on some
        North American passeriform birds. Kansas Entomological Society, 34: 105-132.
Knee, W., Proctor, H., and Galloway, T. 2008. Survey of nasal mites (Rhinonyssidae, Ereynetidae, and
        Turbinoptidae) associated with birds in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 140: 364-379.
Pence, D.B. 1972. The nasal mites of birds from Louisiana IV. The genus Ptilonyssus (Dermanyssidae:
        Rhinonyssinae) with a description of two new species. Journal of Parasitology, 58: 1162-1169.
Pence, D.B. 1973. The nasal mites of birds from Louisiana. VIII. Additional records and description of a new
        species (Acarina: Dermanyssidae, Ereynetidae, Epidermoptidae, and Cytoditidae). Journal of Parasitology,
        59
: 874-880.
Pence, D.B. 1975. Keys, species and host list, and bibliography for nasal mites of North American birds (Acarina:
        Rhinonyssinae, Turbinoptinae, Speleognathinae, and Cytoditidae). Special Publications of the Museum
        Texas Tech University, 8: 1-148.
Pence, D.B., and Casto, S.D. 1976. Studies on the variation and morphology of the Ptilonyssus sairae” complex
        (Acarina: Rhinonyssinae) from North American passeriform birds. Journal of Medical Entomology, 13: 71-95.
Spicer, G.S. 1977a. Two new nasal mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Mesostigmata: Rhinonyssidae) from Texas.
        Acarologia, 18: 594-601.
Spicer, G.S. 1977b. New host records from avian nasal mites (Acarina: Rhinonyssinae, Speleognathinae). Journal
        of Medical Entomology, 14: 498.
Spicer, G.S. 1978. A new species and several new host records of avian nasal mites (Acarina: Rhinonyssinae,
        Turbinoptinae). Journal of Parasitology, 64: 891-894.
Spicer, G.S. 1987. Prevalence and host-parasite list of some nasal mites from birds (Acarina: Rhinonyssidae,
        Speleognathidae). Journal of Parasitology, 73: 259-264.
Wilson, N., and Haas, G.E. 1980. Ectoparasites (Mallophaga, Diptera, Acari) from Alaskan birds. Proceedings
        of the Entomological Society of Washington, 82: 541-552.

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