Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification
 
 

An illustrated identification key to the genera of Ulidiidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) of the United States and Canada

CJAI 45 -- April 26, 2021
doi:10.3752/cjai.2021.45

Charles Wallace

| Abstract | Introduction | Materials & Methods | Checklist | Morphology | Generic Key | Acknowledgments | References | PDF | Cite |
 
 

Materials & Methods

Specimens and data records were accessed from insect collections at three institutions: the Insect Museum in the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at North Carolina State University (NCSU), the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) at the University of Florida at Gainesville, and the Diptera Collection in the U.S. National Entomological Collection (USNM) at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

Location data for taxa represented in the United States and Canada was based primarily on Steyskal's (1987) descriptions, and supplemented with documentation of occurrences in published literature (Arnett 2000, Marshall 2012), the Catalog of Life (Roskov et al. 2017), the website Systema Dipterorum (Pape and Thompson 2017), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), and collection information from the three institutions listed above. Based on available information, none of the represented species are definitively known from Alaska.

In total, Ulidiidae is represented in the United States and Canada by 40 genera and 132 species. Members of all recognized subfamilial, suprageneric categories (Otitinae: Cephaliini, Myennidini, and Otitini; Ulidiinae: Lipsanini, Pterocallini, Seiopterini, Ulidiini), as of the most recent comprehensive taxonomic consideration of the family (Kameneva and Korneyev 2006), are represented by at least one genus, with a bias towards the primarily Holarctic subfamily Otitinae. A list of genera and species with a documentation in North America north of Mexico is available in Table 1, which also specifies the source (i.e. NCSU) of the specimens photographed for this paper.

Additional Notes

In Arnett (2000), Pseudotephritina Malloch is treated as a sub-genus of Pseudotephritis Johnson. Herein, however, I agree with Steyskal (1987) and Kameneva and Korneyev (2006), in treating it as a genus.

One additional genus, Prionella Robineau-Desvoidy, is indicated as appearing in the United States in Arnett (2000), and on Systema Dipterorum (diptera.org). However, it is a genus of unrecognizable identity and is therefore excluded.

The terminology used follows the standard set in the "Adult Morphology and Terminology" chapter of the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (Cumming and Wood 2017). "Frontal index" refers to the ratio of frons height to frons width at base. Figures 2-7 provide pictures of ulidiids from the key with relevant morphological traits labeled.

The bulk of the text in the original dichotomous key is preserved from Steyskal (1987). Where relevant, terms are updated to comply with the terminology from the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera, as in the replacement of "bristle" with "seta." Additional small changes to the original text were made to clarify, correct, or remove redundant and potentially confusing traits. For example, in couplet #30, 30' stated "tibiae usually distinctly banded," but this is contradicted by couplet 32, which clarifies that neither Pseudotephritina Malloch nor Xanthacrona Wulp possess distinctly banded tibiae.

Specimen Imaging

With the exception of Hiatus fulvipes Cresson (represented by non-photographic illustrations) and Texasa chaetifrons Steyskal (type: United States Natural Museum, image: Dr. Allen Norrbom), all images in this key were taken by the author. Each final image was produced through focus stacking. Initial photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 6D camera with either the Canon MP-E 65mm 1-5x macro lens or the Laowa 60mm f/2.8 2X Ultra-Macro (used for some of the specimens from the FSCA), at variable magnification and aperture depending on specimen, mounted on a Cognisys StackShot standard macro rail. Images were stacked using the Zerene Stacker system. Additional images of Texasa chaetifrons, Physiphora clausa Macquart, and Tritoxa flexa Wiedemann were taken with Canon EOS 5DS and MP-E 65mm lens. Edits, to remove blemishes and to correct for color and clarity, were performed using Adobe Photoshop CS6. The specimen identified as Tritoxa cuneata Loew was photographed before the publication by Sinclair et al. (2021) describing two new species in the T. cuneata species complex; locality information and male genitalia are unavailable to determine whether it is actually T. californica Sinclair et al. or T. decipiens Sinclair et al. rather than T. cuneata. One species, Hiatus fulvipes, is known exclusively by several type specimens and was unavailable for photography; it is represented with drawn illustrations. These illustrations were completed by an artist using Plate VI of Cresson (1906) as a reference.

For each trait used diagnostically in the key, an image was attempted; however, several traits were not visible from the available specimens due to the position in which they were pinned.

Table 1. List of all contemporary species of Ulidiidae with a Nearctic distribution. Additional columns indicate species presence in Canada or the United States, as well as origin of specimen photographed ("---" indicates absence of photograph). Abbreviations for repositories: NCSU - Insect Museum in the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at North Carolina State University; FSCA - the Florida State Collection of Arthropods at the University of Florida at Gainesville; USNM - Diptera Collection in the U.S. National Entomological Collection at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

Subfamily Tribe Genus Species# Species Canada USA Specimen source USNMENT #
Otitinae Cephaliini Cephalia 2
  Cephalia flavoscutellata Becker, 1900 Yes No USNM 1396546
  Cephalia rufipes Meigen, 1826 No Yes USNM 1396541
Delphinia 1
  Delphinia picta Fabricius, 1781 Yes Yes NCSU
Myiomyrmica 1
  Myiomyrmica fenestrata Coquillett, 1900 No Yes FSCA, USNM 1396545
Myrmecothea 1
  Myrmecothea myrmecoides Loew, 1860 No Yes NCSU, USNM 1396639
Tritoxa 7
  Tritoxa californica Sinclair et al. 2021 No Yes ---
  Tritoxa cuneata Loew, 1873 Yes Yes FSCA
  Tritoxa decipiens Sinclair et al. 2021 Yes Yes ---
  Tritoxa flexa Wiedemann, 1830 Yes Yes FSCA
  Tritoxa incurva Loew, 1873 No Yes FSCA
  Tritoxa pollinosa Cole, 1919 No Yes FSCA
  Tritoxa ra Harriot, 1942 No Yes ---
incertae sedis Curranops 2
  Curranops apicalis Cole & Lovett, 1921 Yes Yes ---
  Curranops scutellaris Coquillett, 1900 No Yes USNM
Diacrita 2
  Diacrita costalis Gerstaecker, 1860 No Yes FSCA, USNM 1396572
  Diacrita plana Steyskal, 1947 No Yes USNM 1396516
Haigia 1
  Haigia nevadana Steyskal, 1961 No Yes USNM 1396491
Idana 1
  Idana marginata Say, 1830 Yes Yes FSCA
Psaeropterella 2
  Psaeropterella macrocephala Hendel, 1914 No Yes USNM 1396496
  Psaeropterella punctifrons Hendel, 1914 Yes No USNM 1396536
Tetropismenus 1
Tetropismenus hirtus Loew, 1876 No Yes USNM 1396538
Tujunga 1
Tujunga mackenziei Steyskal, 1961 No Yes USNM 1396523
Myennidini Callopistromyia 2
Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855 No Yes FSCA
Callopistromyia strigula Loew, 1873 Yes Yes USNM 1396577
Dyscrasis 1
Dyscrasis hendeli Aldrich, 1932 Yes Yes USNM 1396493
Oedopa 2
Oedopa ascriptiva Hendel, 1909 No Yes USNM 1396533
Oedopa capito Loew, 1868 No Yes USNM 1396612
Paroedopa 1
Paroedopa punctigera Coquillett, 1900 No Yes USNM 1396531
Pseudotephritina 2
Pseudotephritina cribellum Loew, 1873 Yes Yes FSCA, USNM 1396597
Pseudotephritina inaequalis Malloch, 1931 No Yes FSCA, USNM 1396629
Pseudotephritis 4
Pseudotephritis approximata Banks, 1914 No Yes FSCA
Pseudotephritis corticalis Loew, 1873 Yes Yes FSCA
Pseudotephritis inaequalis Malloch, 1931 No Yes ---
Pseudotephritis vau Say, 1830 Yes Yes USNM 1396607
Stictomyia 2
Stictomyia longicornis Bigot, 1885 No Yes USNM 1396474
Stictomyia punctata Coquillett, 1900 No Yes USNM 1396473
Texasa 1
Texasa chaetifrons Steyskal, 1961 No Yes USNM
Ulidiotites 1
Ulidiotites dakotana Steyskal, 1961 No Yes USNM 1396488
Otitini Ceroxys 1
Ceroxys latiusculus Loew, 1873 Yes Yes FSCA
Herina 4
Herina canadensis Johnson, 1902 Yes Yes USNM 1396600
Herina narytia Walker, 1849 No Yes USNM 1396562
Herina nigribasis McAlpine, 1951 Yes Yes USNM 1396602
Herina ruficeps Wulp, 1867 Yes Yes FSCA
Hiatus 1
Hiatus fulvipes Cresson, 1906 No Yes ---
Melieria 6
Melieria cana Loew, 1858 Yes Yes FSCA
Melieria occidentalis Coquillett, 1904 Yes Yes FSCA
Melieria ochricornis Loew, 1873 Yes Yes FSCA
Melieria picta Meigen, 1826 No Yes USNM 1396486
Melieria sabuleti Steyskal, 1962 No Yes USNM 1396501
Melieria similis Loew, 1873 Yes Yes USNM 1396632
Otites 7
Otites bimaculata Hendel, 1911 Yes Yes USNM 1396585
Otites erythrocephala Hendel, 1911 No Yes USNM 1396590
Otites erythrosceles Steyskal, 1966 No Yes ---
Otites michiganus Steyskal, 1966 Yes Yes FSCA
Otites pyrrhocephala Loew, 1876 No Yes USNM 1396634
Otites snowi Cresson, 1924 No Yes USNM 1396617
Otites stigma Hendel, 1911 Yes Yes FSCA
Tetanops 7
Tetanops cazieri Harriot, 1942 No Yes USNM 1396528
Tetanops integer Loew, 1873 Yes Yes USNM 1396625
Tetanops luridipennis Loew, 1873 No Yes FSCA
Tetanops magdalenae Cresson, 1924 No Yes USNM 1396624
Tetanops myopaeformis Roder, 1881 Yes Yes FSCA
Tetanops parallelus Steyskal, 1970 No Yes USNM 1396587
Tetanops vittifrons Wulp, 1899 No Yes ---
Ulidiinae Lipsanini
Acrosticta 6
Acrosticta apicalis Williston, 1896 No Yes USNM 1396570
Acrosticta compta Cole, 1912 No Yes ---
Acrosticta dichroa Loew, 1874 No Yes USNM 1396503
Acrosticta fulvipes Coquillett, 1900 No Yes USNM 1396511
Acrosticta rubida Loew, 1876 No Yes USNM 1396535
Acrosticta rufiventris Hendel, 1910 No Yes USNM 1396475
Axiologina 1
Axiologina ferrumequinum Hendel, 1909 No Yes FSCA
Chaetopsis 7
Chaetopsis aenea Wiedemann, 1830 No Yes FSCA
Chaetopsis apicalis Johnson, 1900 No Yes FSCA
Chaetopsis duplicata Johnson, 1921 No Yes ---
Chaetopsis fulvifrons Macquart, 1855 Yes Yes FSCA
Chaetopsis magna Cresson, 1924 No Yes ---
Chaetopsis massyla Walker, 1849 Yes Yes FSCA
Chaetopsis quadrifasciata Curran 1928 No Yes USNM 1396490
Eumetopiella 2
Eumetopiella rufipes Macquart, 1847 No Yes FSCA
Eumetopiella varipes Loew, 1866 No Yes USNM 1396506
Euxesta 33
Euxesta abana Curran, 1935 No Yes ---
Euxesta abdominalis Loew, 1868 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta albitarsis Zetterstedt, 1838 Yes Yes ---
Euxesta anna Harriot, 1942 No Yes ---
Euxesta annonae Fabricius, 1794 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta atlantica Ahlmark , 1995 No Yes USNM 1396576
Euxesta basalis Walker, 1853 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta bicolor Cresson, 1906 No Yes ---
Euxesta brookmani Harriot, 1942 No Yes ---
Euxesta contorta Curran, 1935 No Yes USNM 1396631
Euxesta eluta Loew, 1868 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta fervida Curran, 1935 No Yes USNM 1396566
Euxesta fulvicornis Bigot, 1886 No Yes USNM 1396601
Euxesta juncta Coquillett, 1904 No Yes USNM 1396556
Euxesta luteocesta No Yes USNM 1396561
Euxesta lutzi Curran, 1935 No Yes USNM 1396551
Euxesta magdalenae Cresson, 1924 No Yes ---
Euxesta minor Cresson, 1906 No Yes USNM 1396621
Euxesta nigriceps Curran, 1935 No Yes ---
Euxesta nitidiventris Loew, 1873 No Yes USNM 1396586
Euxesta notata Wiedemann, 1830 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta pacifica Steyskal , 1995 No Yes USNM 1396581
Euxesta pechumani Curran, 1938 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta pulchella Cresson, 1906 No Yes USNM 1396596
Euxesta quaternaria Loew, 1868 No Yes FSCA
Euxesta rubida Curran, 1935 No Yes USNM 1396591
Euxesta sanguinea Hendel, 1913 No Yes USNM 1396616
Euxesta scutellaris Curran, 1935 No Yes USNM 1396611
Euxesta spoliata Loew, 1868 No Yes USNM 1396606
Euxesta thomae Loew, 1868 No Yes ---
Euxesta willistoni Coquillett, 1900 No Yes ---
Euxesta xeres Curran, 1935 No Yes ---
Euxesta zacki Steyskal, 1986 No Yes ---
Notogramma 2
Notogramma cimiciformis Loew, 1868 No Yes FSCA
Notogramma purpuratum Cole, 1923 No Yes FSCA
Stenomyia 3
Stenomyia hendeli Johnson, 1913 No Yes USNM 1396500
Stenomyia nasoni Cresson 1913 No Yes USNM 1396582
Stenomyia tenuissima Hendel, 1910 No Yes FSCA
Zacompsia 1
Zacompsia fulva Coquillett, 1901 No Yes FSCA
Pterocallini
Xanthacrona 1
Xanthacrona bipustulata Wulp, 1899 No Yes USNM 1396615
Seiopterini
Homalocephala 3
Homalocephala apicalis Wahlberg, 1839 Yes Yes USNM 1396470
Homalocephala bipunctata Loew, 1854 Yes Yes ---
Homalocephala similis Cresson, 1924 Yes Yes ---
Pseudoseioptera 2
Pseudoseioptera albipes Cresson, 1919 Yes Yes USNM 1396505
Pseudoseioptera dubiosa Johnson, 1921 Yes Yes ---
Seioptera 3
Seioptera colon Loew, 1868 No Yes USNM 1396513
Seioptera costalis Walker, 1849 Yes No ---
Seioptera vibrans Linnaeus, 1758 Yes Yes USNM 1396515
Ulidiini
Physiphora 6
Physiphora alceae Preyssler, 1791 Yes Yes FSCA
Physiphora clausa Macquart, 1843 Yes Yes FSCA
Physiphora hendeli Johnson, 1913 No Yes ---
Physiphora laticauda Loew, 1873 No Yes ---
Physiphora nasoni Cresson, 1913 No Yes ---
Physiphora tenuis Loew, 1868 No Yes ---
Steneretma 1
Steneretma laticauda Loew, 1873 No Yes USNM

 

Figure 2. Physiphora alceae from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods labeled with directional terms used throughout the text. The double-headed arrow indicates directional terms for dorsal views.

Figure 3. Ceroxys latiusculus from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, labeled with terms for different characters of the head.

Figure 4. Ceroxys latiusculus from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, labeled with terms for different characters of the head.

Figure 5. Tritoxa flexa from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, with labels for characters visible dorsally.

Figure 6. Melieria picta from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Collection with thoracic setae used in this key labeled.

Figure 7. Wing of Ceroxys latiusculus from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods with veins, crossveins, and cells used for identification in this key labeled.