Morphological Summary

females

Body. 2.6-3.8(-4.1) mm long, 2.4-2.8 times longer than wide; pronotum 1.1-1.2 times longer than wide.
Head. 
Epistomal margin with uniseriate row of tubercles absent or present with gap at midline. Frons outline convex or protruding in lateral view; vestiture fine (not hiding part of integument); surface sculpture near epistoma densely tuberculate-punctatecentral carina absent; central tubercle absent, without pair of circular tubercles on either side of midline; transverse carina absent; frons central fovea absent; circular tubercles above top of eyes absent. Vertex and pronotum without stridulatory apparatus (pars stridens). Antennal club sutures bisinuate.
Prothorax. 
Protibiae with three socketed teeth on apical half (does not include apical spine).
Elytra. Interstriae punctate (observed on interstriae 2 and 3 on middle third of elytral disc), punctures 0.3-0.5 times diameter of adjacent strial punctures (punctures and striae measured at steepest part of puncture wall), interstrial setae longer than width of scutellar shield, interstriae 2-3 times as wide as adjacent striae. Elytral declivity with four spines per side, spine 3 largest; spine 1 (largest on 2nd interstria) closer to suture than spine 2; spines 1 and 2 separated at base by distance greater than height of spine 1; spine 2 closer to spine 3 than spine 1; spine 3 tapered or straight sided with tapered apex, apex obtuse to rounded, with apical half symmetrical or asymmetrical in lateral view; spines 2 and 3 on or not on shared tumescence, in line with spines 1 and 4 (posterodorsal view); declivital integument shiny.

 

males
Body. 
2.6-3.8(-4.1) mm long, 2.4-2.8 times longer than wide; pronotum 1.1-1.2 times longer than wide.
Head. 
Epistomal margin with uniseriate row of tubercles uninterrupted medially or with gap at midline. Frons outline convex in lateral view; vestiture fine (not hiding part of integument); surface sculpture near epistoma densely tuberculate-punctate or with isolated tubercles; central carina absent; central tubercle absent, without pair of circular tubercles on either side of midline; transverse carina absent; frons central fovea absent; circular tubercles above top of eyes present – up to one third of all tubercles. Vertex and pronotum without stridulatory apparatus (pars stridens). Antennal club sutures bisinuate or straight.
Prothorax. 
Protibiae with three socketed teeth on apical half (does not include apical spine).
Elytra. Interstriae punctate (observed on interstriae 2 and 3 on middle third of elytral disc), punctures 0.3-0.5 times diameter of adjacent strial punctures (punctures and striae measured at steepest part of puncture wall), interstrial setae longer than width of scutellar shield, interstriae 2-3 times as wide as adjacent striae. Elytral declivity with four spines per side, spine 3 largest; spine 1 (largest on 2nd interstria) closer to suture than spine 2; spines 1 and 2 separated at base by distance greater than height of spine 1; spine 2 closer to spine 3 than spine 1; spine 3 tapered or straight sided with tapered apex, apex right-angled or obtuse to rounded, with apical half symmetrical or asymmetrical in lateral view; spines 2 and 3 on or not on shared tumescence, in line with spines 1 and 4 (posterodorsal view); declivital integument shiny.

Geographic Distribution

Species: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan); USA (Alaska, Colorado, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, Wyoming).

Subspecies: USA (Colorado, South Dakota, Wyoming).

Hosts

Picea spp.

Notes

I. borealis, I. pilifrons, and I. tridens form clade (Cognato and Sun 2007).

 

References

Cognato, A.I.2015. Biology, systematics, and evolution of IpsIn Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Edited by F.E. Vega and R.W. Hofstetter. Elsevier, San Diego, California. Pp. 351–370.

Cognato, A.I. and Sun, J.H. 2007. DNA based cladograms augment the discovery of a new Ips species from China (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Cladistics23: 539–551.

Wood, S.L. 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs6: 1–1359.

Internet resources

https://www.barkbeetles.info/regional_chklist_target_species.php?lookUp=1703

 

https://www.barkbeetles.info/regional_chklist_target_species.php?lookUp=1699