header image
Siricidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricoidea) of the Western Hemisphere
CJAI 21, July, 2012
doi: 10.3752/cjai.2012.21
Nathan M. Schiff, Henri Goulet, David R. Smith, Caroline Boudreault, A. Dan Wilson, and Brian E. Scheffler

Aguiar, A. P. and Johnson, N. F. 2003. Stephanidae (Hymenoptera) of America North of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 105(2): 467-483.

Allard, G. 2008a. Overview of forest pests in Argentina. Forest health and biosecurity working papers. Forest Department. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Working paper FBS/9E, Rome, Italy. 22 pp.

Allard, G. 2008b. Overview of forest pests in Chile. Forest health and biosecurity working papers. Forest Department. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Working paper FBS/12E, Rome, Italy. 30 pp.

Allen, R. R. and Ball, G. E. 1980. Synopsis of Mexican taxa of Loxandrus series (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichini). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 105: 481-576.

Amman, G. D. 1969. Annotated list of insects infesting bark and wood of Fraser fir. Journal of Economic Entomology 62: 249-250.

Ashmead, W. H. 1898. Classification of the horntails and sawflies, or the sub-order Phytophaga (Paper No. 2). The Canadian Entomologist 30: 177-183.

Ashmead, W. H. 1900. Order Hymenoptera. Pp. 501-613, in Smith J. B. Insects of New Jersey: a list of species occurring in New Jersey with notes on those of economic importance. MacCrellish and Quigley, Trenton, New Jersey. 755 pp.

Ashmead, W. H. 1904. Descriptions of four new horn-tails. The Canadian Entomologist 36: 63-64.

Baldini, U. A. 2002. Tremex fuscicornis: Un factor de daño para el recurso Forestal y Agrícola. Agronomia y Forestal UC, Revista de Extension de la Facultad de Agronomía e Ingenieria Forestal de la Ponteficia, Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 16: 11-13.

Ball, S. L. and Armstrong, K. F. 2006. DNA barcodes for insect pest identification: a test case with tussock moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 337–350.

Baumberger, J. P. 1915. Notes on the Siricidae of California (Hym.). Entomological News 26: 34.

Beal, J. A. and Massey, C. L. 1945. Bark beetles and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytoidea): with special reference to species occurring in North America. School of Forestry. Bulletin 10: 1-178.

Bedard, W. D. 1938. A annotated list of the insects fauna of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga mucronata Rafinesque) in the northern Rocky Mountain region. The Canadian Entomologist 70: 188-197.

Bedding R. A. 1967. Parasitic and free-living cycles in entomogenous nematodes of the genus Deladenus. Nature 214: 174–175.

Bedding R. A. 1972. Biology of Deladenus siricidicola (Neotylenchidae) an entomophagous-mycetophagous nematode parasitic in siricid woodwasps. Nematologica 18: 482–493.

Bedding R. A. 1974. Five new species of Deladenus (Neotylenchidae), entomophagous-mycetophagous nematodes parasitic in siricid woodwasps. Nematologica 20: 204–225.

Bedding R. A. and Akhurst, R. J. 1978. Geographical distribution and host preferences of Deladenus species (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) parasitic in siricid woodwasps and associated hymenopterous parasitoids. Nematologica 24: 286–294.

Bedding R., Iede, E. 2005. Application of Beddingia siricidicola for Sirex woodwasp control. pp. 385–399, in: P.S. Grewal, R.-U. Ehlers and D.I. Shapiro-Ilan (eds.). Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents. Publisher, London, UK.

Belyea, R. B. 1952. Death and deterioration of balsam fir weakened by spruce budworm defoliation in Ontario. The Canadian Entomologist 84: 325-335.

Benson, R. B. 1938. On the classification of sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 87: 353- 384.

Benson, R. B. 1940. Sawflies of the Berkhamsted district: with a list of the sawflies of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and a survey of the British species (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club 21(3): 177-231.

Benson, R. B. 1943. Studies in Siricidae, especially of Europe and southern Asia (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Bulletin of Entomological Research 34: 27-51.

Benson, R. B. 1945. Urocerus californicus (Norton) and some other interesting Siricidae (Hym., Symphyta) in Britain. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 81: 67-68.

Benson, R. B. 1962. Holarctic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 12: 381-409.

Benson, R. B. 1963 (1962). A character gradient in Sirex juvencus L. (Hym., Siricidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 98: 252-253.

Blackman, M. W. and Stage, H. H. 1918. Notes on insects bred from the bark and wood of the American larch – Larix laricina (Du Roc) Koch. Technical Publication No. 10 of New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. 115 pp.

Blackman, M. W. and Stage, H. H. 1924. On the succession of insects living in the bark and wood of dying, dead and decaying hickory. Technical Publication No. 17 of New York State College of Forestry of Syracuse University. (Vol. 24, No. 22).

Blank, S. M., Taeger, A., Liston, A. D., Smith, D. R., Rasnitsyn, A. P., Shinohara, A., Heidemaa, M. and viitasaari, M. 2009. Studies toward a World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa 2254: 1-96.

Bordage, E. 1914. Notes biologiques recueillies à l'Ile de la Réunion. Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris 47(4) (in Review of Applied Entomology 2 p. 215).

Böröczky, K., Crook, D. J., Jones, T. H., Kenny, J. C., Zylstra, K. E., Mastro, V. C. and Tumlinson, J. H. 2009. Monoalkenes as contact sex pheromone components of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35: 1202–1211.

Bradley, J. C. 1913. The Siricidae of North America. Journal of Entomology and Zoology 5: 1-35.

Bradley, J. C. 1934. A new species of Xeris (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) from the Himalayas. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 36(2): 145.

Brullé, A. 1846. Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Hyménoptères. (ed. Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau), Paris. Vol. 4, 680 pp.

Buchner, P. 1928. Holznährung und Symbiose. J. Springer, Berlin.

Burks, B. D. 1958. Symphyta. Pp. 8-18, in Krombein, K. V. (ed.). Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, First Supplement (Agricultural Monograph No. 2), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 305 pp.

Burks, B.D. 1967. Symphyta. Pp. 6-27, in Krombein, K. R. and B. D. Burks (eds.). Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. Second Supplement (Agricultural Monograph No. 2), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 584 pp.

Cameron, E. A. 1965. The Siricinae (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) and their parasites. Technical Bulletin, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control 5: 1-31.

Cameron, E. A. 1967. Notes on Sirex juvencus californicus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), with a description of the male and a key to the California species of Sirex. The Canadian Entomologist 99: 18-24.

Cameron, E. A. 1968. Sirex juvencus californicus in smog-killed trees in Southern California (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 44: 168.

Cameron, P. 1883-1890. Siricidae. Pp. 68-69, in Biologia Centrali-americana. Insecta Hymenoptera (families Tenthredinidae – Chrysidiade). Vol. I [the Siricidae were published in 1883.]

Cameron, P. 1890. Monograph of British phytophagous hymenoptera. Vol. 3: 134. The Ray Society, London. 274 pp. + 17 pls.

Cartwright, K. St G. 1929. Notes on a fungus associated with Sirex cyaneus. Annals of Applied Biology 16: 182–187.

Cartwright, K. St G. 1938. A further note on fungus association in Siricidae. Annals of Applied Biology 25: 430–432.

Chamberlin W. J. 1949. A note on Sirex areolatus (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Siricidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 25: 118.

Champlain, A. B. 1922. Records of hymenopterous parasites in Pennsylvania. Psyche 29: 95–100.

Chapin, J. B. and Oliver, A. D. 1986. Records of Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura), Sirex edwardsii Brullé, and Neurotoma fasciata (Norton) in Louisiana (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Pamphiliidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88: 190.

Chapman, J. A. 1954. Studies on summit-frequenting insects in western Montana. Ecology 35(1): 41-49.

Chapman, R. F. 1982. The Insects: Structure and Function. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 919 pp.

Champlain, A. B. 1922. Records of hymenopterous parasites in Pennsylvania. Psyche 29: 95-100.

Christ, J. L. 1791. Naturgeschichte, Klassification und Nomenclatur der Insekten vom Bienen, Wespen und Ameisengeschlecht; als der fünften Klasse fünfte Ordnung des Linneischen Natursystems von den Insekten: Hymenoptera. Mit häutigen Flügeln. Frankfurt. 535 pp.

Chrystal, R. N. 1928. The Sirex woodwasps and their importance in forestry. Bulletin of Entomological Research 19: 219-247.

Chrystal, R. N. 1930. Studies of the Sirex parasites. Oxford Forestry Memoirs 11, 63 pp.

Chrystal, R. N. and Myers, J. G. 1928a. Natural enemies of Sirex cyaneus Fabr., in England and their life history. Bulletin of Entomological Research 19: 67-77.

Chrystal, R. N. and Myers, J. G. 1928b. The Sirex woodwasps and their parasites. Empire Forestry Journal 7: 145-154.

Ciesla, W. M. 2003. Exotic Forest Pest Information System for North America: Tremex fuscicornis. North American Forest Commission. http://spfnic.fs.fed.us/exfor/data/pestreports.cfm?pestidval=157&langdisplay=english (accessed on November 1, 2011)

Clark, A. F. 1933. The horntail borer and its fungal association. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 15: 3.

Clementi, V. 1868. Capture of Tremex columba. The Canadian Entomologist 1(4): 29.

Cockerell, T. D. A. 1889. Colorado Biological Association. Report 10: 37.

Cooley, R. A. 1896. A new structural character in insects. Psyche 7: 395-397.

Costa, A. 1894. Prospetto degli Imenotteri Italiani. III, Tenthredinidei e Siricidei. Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Napoli, Vol. 3, 290 pp.

Coutts, M. P. 1965. Sirex noctilio and the physiology of Pinus radiata. Australian Department of National Development Forest and Timber Bureau. Bulletin 41: 3.

Coutts, M. P. 1969a. The mechanism of pathogenicity of Sirex noctilio on Pinus radiata I. Effects of the symbiotic fungus Amylostereum sp. (Thelophoraceae). Australian Journal of Science 30: 274–276.

Coutts, M. P. 1969b. The mechanism of pathogenicity of Sirex noctilio on Pinus radiata 2. Effects of the S. noctilio mucus. Australian Journal of Science 22: 915–924.

Coutts M. P. and Dolezal, J. E. 1965. Sirex noctilio, its associated fungus, and some aspects of wood moisture content. Australian Forestry Research 1: 3–13.

Coutts, M.P. and Dolezal, J. E. 1969. Emplacement of fungal spores by the woodwasp Sirex noctilio during oviposition. Forest Science 15: 412–416.

Couturier, A. 1949. Observations sur les Rhyssa approximator F. cleptoparasite de Rh. persuasoria L. (Hym. Ichneumonidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 54: 62-63.

Craighead, F. C. 1950. Insect enemies of the eastern forest. United States Department of Agriculture. Miscellaneous Publication No. 657: 586-587.

Cresson, E. T. 1865a. On the Hymenoptera of Cuba. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 4: 1-4.

Cresson, E. T. 1865b. Catalogue of Hymenoptera in the collection of the entomological society of Philadelphia, from Colorado Territory. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 4: 242-247.

Cresson, E. T. 1868. Catalogue of a small collection of Hymenoptera made in New Mexico during the summer of 1867. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 1: 375-388.

Cresson, E. T. 1880. Catalogue of the Tenthredinidae and Uroceridae of North America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 8: 53-68.

Cresson, E. T. 1916. The Cresson types of Hymenoptera. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, No. 1. 141 pp.

Cresson, E. T. 1928. The types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia other than those of Ezra T. Cresson. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society No. 5. 90 pp.

Crompton, G. C. 1919. The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of males and the terminal abdominal structures of the larvae of chalastogastrous Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 21(6): 129-155.

Curtis, J. 1829. British entomology; being illustrations & descriptions of genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. VI. London. 289 pages and plates.

Dalla Torre, de C. G. 1894. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Volume I : Tenthredinidae including Uroceridae (Phyllophaga & Xylophaga). G. Engelmann, Lipsiae [Leipzig, Germany]. 459 pp.

Daly, H. V. 1963. Close-packed and fibrillar muscles of the Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 56: 295-306.

Davis, J. J. 1932. Insects of Indiana for 1932. Proceedings of the forty-eighth Annual Meeting. Indiana Academy of Science 42 : 213-225.

DeGeer, C. 1773. Mémoire pour server à l'histoire des insects. Tome 3ième. Pierre Hesselberg, Stockholm. VIII + 696 pp.

De Groot P., Nystrom K. and Scarr T. 2006. Discovery of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Ontario, Canada. Great Lakes Entomologist 39: 49–53.

De Leon, D. 1952. Insects associated with Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoia gigantea in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 23: 75-91.

DeSalle, R. 2006. Species discovery versus species identification in DNA barcoding efforts: Response to Rubinoff. Conservation Biology 20: 1545–1547.

Dimmock, A. K. 1885. The insects of Betula in North America. Psyche 4: 271-286.

Drury, D. 1773. Illustrations of Natural History Wherein are exhibited Upwards of Two Hundred and Twenty Figures of Exotic Insects, According to their different Genera; Very few of which have hitherto been figured by any author, being engraved and coloured from Nature, with the greatest accuracy, and under the author's own inspection, on fifty copper-plates, with a particular description of each insect: Interspersed with remarks and reflections on the nature and properties of many of them. Vol. II. Printed by the author, London. vii + 90 + [2] + [2] pp., 50 pls.

Essig, E. O. 1926. Insects of Western North America. The MacMillan Company, New York. XII + 1035 pp.

Evenhuis, N. L. 1997. Litteratura taxonomica dipterorum (1758-1930). Vol. 1 (A-K) Vol. 2 (L-Z). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. V11+ 871 pp.

Fabricius, J. C. 1781. Species Insectorum exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin adiectis observationibus, descriptionibus. C. E. Bohnii, Hamburgi et Kilonii, Vol. 1, VIII + 552 pp.

Fabricius, J. C. 1787. Mantissa insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiestis characteribus, genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. Tome I. C. G. Proft, Hafniae. 20+348 pp.

Fabricius, J. C. 1793. Entomologica systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. C. G. Proft, Hafniae. Vol. 2: 104-132.

Fattig, P. W. 1949. Some observations on Megarhyssa (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Entomological News 60: 69-71.

Felt, E. P. 1905. Insects affecting park and woodland trees. New York State Museum. New York State Education Department. Vol. I. 458 pp.

Felt, E. P. 1906. Less destructive insects affecting evergreen or conifer trees. Pp. 648-700, Insects affecting park and woodland trees. Memoir of the New York State Museum 8. 877 pp.

Fernandez-Triana, J., Smith, M. A., Boudreault, C., Goulet, H., Hebert, P. D. N., Smith, A.C. and Roughley, R. 2011. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: Unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time. PLoS One 6(8): e23719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023719

Fidalgo, P. and Smith, D. R. 1987. A fossil Siricidae (Hymenoptera) from Argentina. Entomological News 98: 63-66.

Fitch, A. 1857. Noxious and other insects of the State of New York. Transaction of the New York Agricultural Society 16: 349-490.

Fitch, A. 1858a. Noxious and other insects of the State of New York. Report 4: 1-67.

Fitch, A. 1858b. Noxious and other insects of the State of New York. Report 5: 1-74.

Fitch, A, 1859. Noxious and other insects of the State of New York. Insect infesting deciduous trees. Report 5: 781-854.

Flanders, S. E. 1925. Ibalia ensiger Norton on Monterey Cypress. Journal of Economic Entomology 18: 236-237.

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. and Vrijenhoek, R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294–299.

Forsius, R. 1933. Notes on a collection of Malaysian Tenthredinoidea (Hym.). Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 8: 169-193.

Francke-Grossmann, H. 1939. Über das Zusammenleben von Holzwespen (Siricinae) mit Pilzen. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 25 (1938–1939) (4): 647-680.

Francke-Grosmann, H. 1954. Tierische Holzschädlinge, Holzwespen. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 12: 35-38.

Frey, J. E. and Frey, B. 2004. Origin of intra-individual variation in PCR-amplified mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera Thripidae): mitochondrial heteroplasmy or nuclear integration? Hereditas 140: 92–98.

Frison, T. H. 1927. List of the insect types in the collections of the Illinois State Natural History Survey and the University of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 16(4): 137-309.

Fukuda, H. and Hijii, N. 1997. Reproductive strategy of a woodwasp with no fungal symbionts, Xeris spectrum (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Oecologia 112: 551-556.

Fyles, T. W. 1917. The naturalist in the city. Annual report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 47: 28-31.

Gauld, I. D. and Mound, L. A. 1982. Homoplasy and delineation of holophyletic genera in some insect groups. Systematic Entomology 7: 73-86.

Gaut, I. P. C. 1969. Identity of the fungal symbiont of Sirex noctilio. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 22: 905–914.

Gaut, I. P. C. 1970. Studies of siricids and their fungal Symbionts. Ph.D thesis. Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Australia. 166 pp.

Geoffroy, E. L. 1785. Entomologia Parisiensis; sive catalogus insectorum quae in agro Parisiensi reperiuntur ; secundum methodum Geoffraeanam in sectiones, genera et species distributus ; cui addita sunt nomina triviala et fere trecentae novae species. Fourcroy, Paris. Pars 2 : VIII+544 pp.

Ghigi, A. 1909 (1908). Sopra una nuova specie di Siricide delle Azores. Bolletino della Società Entomologica Italiana 40(3-4): 163-170.

Gilbert, J. M. and Miller, L. W. 1952. An outbreak of Sirex noctilio (F.) in Tasmania. Australian Forestry 16: 63-69.

Gmelin, J. F. 1790: Caroli a Linné Systema Naturae. 13. ed. - Lipsiae 1(5): 2225-3020

Goulet, H. 1992. The genera and subgenera of the sawflies of Canada and Alaska. Hymenoptera: Symphyta. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 20. 235 pp.

Gourlay, E. S. 1951. Notes on insects associated with Pinus radiata in New Zealand. Bulletin of Entomological Research 42: 21-22.

Gussakovskij, V. V. 1935. Insectes Hyménoptères. Tome II. Vol. 1. Chalastogastra. Part 1. Faune d l'URSS (N.S.). No. 1. 453 pp.

Hajibabaei, M., Janzen, D. H., Burns, J. M., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P. D. N. 2006. DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103: 968–971.

Harrington, W. H. 1882a. Notes on the occurrence of some species of Uroceridae. The Canadian Entomologist 14: 224-228.

Harrington, W. H. 1882b. A new foe to the maple. Entomological Society of Ontario. Report 14: 40-42.

Harrington, W. H. 1887. Insects infesting maple trees. Entomological Society of Ontario. Report 17: 22–23.

Harrington, W. H. 1893. Canadian Hymenoptera – No. 3. The Canadian Entomologist 25(3): 57-64.

Harris, M. 1782. Exposition of British insects. White and Robson, London. VIII +166 pp. + 44 pls. [plate 28 and p. 96 were published in 1779 – see Evenhuis 1997.]

Harris, T. W. 1827. Doct'r Hunt's insect. New England Farmer 5(27): 211.

Harris, T. W. 1833: VIII. Insects. In: Part IV. Catalogues of animals and plants. - In: Hitchcock, E. 1833: Report on the geology, mineralogy, botany, and zoology of Massachusetts. Made and published by order of the government of that state: in four parts: part I. Economical geology. part II. Topographical geology. part III. Scientific geology. part IV. Catalogues of animals and plants. With a descriptive list of the specimens of rocks and minerals collected for the government. Illustrated by numerous wood cuts and an atlas of plates. - Amherst, Press of J. S. and C. Adams : XII+1-700 : 566-595.

Harris, T. W. 1841. A Report on the Insects of Massachusetts, injurious to vegetation, published agreeably to an order of the Legislature, by the Commissioners on the Zoological Survey of the State. Cambridge, Massachusetts. viii + 459 pp.

Hartig, T. 1837. Die Aderflügler Deutschlands mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Larvenzustandes und ihres Wirkens in Wäldern und Gärten für Entomologen, Wald- und Gartenbesitzer. Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen nebst einer allgemeinen Einleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Hymenopteren. Berlin, i-xiv + 416 pp. + VIII plates

Haugen D. A., Bedding, R. A., Underdown, M. G., and Neumann, F. G. 1990. National strategy for control of Sirex noctilio in Australia. Australian Forest Grower 13(2): Special liftout section No. 13. 8pp.

Haugen, D. and Hoebeke, E. R. 2005. Sirex woodwasp – Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). NA–PR–07–05, United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 2 pp.

Haugen D. A. and Underdown, M. G. 1990. Sirex noctilio control program in response to the 1987 Green Triangle outbreak. Australian Forestry 53: 33–40.

Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S. L. and deWaard, J. R. 2003. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 270: 313–321.

Hebert, P. D. N., Penton, E. H., Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. H. and Hallwachs, W. 2004. Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 101: 14812–14817.

Hebert, P. D. N., Stoeckle, M. Y., Zemlak, T. S. and Francis, C. M. 2004A. Identification of birds through DNA barcodes. PLoS Biol 2(10): e312

Hedicke, H. 1938. Siricidae. Pp. 1-32. In Hedicke, H., (ed.). Hymenopterorum Catalogus, pars 6.

Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetics. University of Illinois Press. Urbana. 263 pp.

Herrick, G. W. 1935. Insect enemies of shade-trees. Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York. 9 + 417 pp.

Heyden von, L. 1868. Ueber das seither unbekannt Männchen von Xyloterus fuscicornis F. (Hymenopt.). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 12(1-2): 227-230.

Hoebeke, E. R. 1980. Catalogue of the Hymenoptera types in the Cornell University collection. Part I: Sympyta and Aprocrita (Parasitica). Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station, Ithaca, N. Y., No. 9. 36 pp.

Hoebeke, E. R., Haugen, D. A. and Haack, R. A. 2005. Sirex noctilio: Discovery of a Palearctic siricid woodwasp in New York. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 50: 24-25.

Hogg, I. D. and Hebert, P. D. N. 2004. Biological identification of springtails (Collembolan: Hexapoda) from the Canadian arctic, using mitochondrial DNA barcodes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 1–6.

Holway, R. T. 1935. Preliminary note on the structure of the pretarsus and its possible phylogenetic significance. Psyche 42: 1-24.

Horn, Walther (H. R.), Kahle, I., Friese, G. & Gaedike, R. 1990. Collectiones entomologicae. Ein Kompendium über den Verbleib entomologischer Sammlungen der Welt bis 1960. Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin, 2 vols., 1-220 and 221-573, 38 pls, 125 photos.

Huber, J. R. and Sharkey, M. J. 1993. Chapter 3. Structure, pp. 13-59, in Goulet, H. and Huber, J. T. (eds.). Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Publication 1894/E. 668 pp.

ICZN. 2000. International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, xxix + 309 pp.

Iede, E. T., Schaitza, E., Penteado, S., Reardon, R. C. and Murphy, S. T. eds. 1998. Proceedings of a Conference Training in the Control of Sirex noctilio by the use of Natural Enemies. Colombo, Brazil, November 4–9, 1996. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Technology Transfer, Biological Control, Morgantown, WV, 8–13. 96 pp.

Jennings, J., Austin, J. T. and Schiff, N. M. 2009. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrtus Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae). Australian Jourmal of Entomology 48: 29–35.

Johnson, C. W. 1928. The New England Siricidae or horntails. Bulletin of the Boston Society of Natural History 49: 3-7.

Johnson, C. W. 1930. On the variation and abundance of Sirex nitidus Harris. Psyche 38: 281-282.

Jurine, L. 1807. Nouvelle Méthode de classer les Hyménoptères et les Diptères. Genève et Paris, Vol. 4, 319 pp + 7 pl.

Kirby, W. F. 1882. List of Hymenoptera with descriptions and figures of the typical specimens in the British Museum. 1. Tenthredinidae and Siricidae. London, by order of the Trustees, Vol. 1. 450 pp.

Kirk, A. A. 1974. Siricid woodwasps and their associated parasitoids in the southeastern United States (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 9: 139-144.

Kirk, A. A. 1975. Siricid woodwasps and their associated parasitoids in the southwestern United States. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 51: 57-61.

Kjellander, E. 1945. Sirex juvencus L. and noctilio Fabr., two good species. Fysiografiska Sällskapet i Lund, Förhandlingar 15: 121-126.

Klasmer, P. (2002). Urocerus: Avispa taladradora de los pinus. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Pesca y Altimentacion, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Proyecto Forestal de Desarrollo Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (Argentina), Hoya Divulgativa Tecnica 16, 2 pp. http://www.inta.gov.ar/bariloche/info/documentos/forestal/silvicul/hdt16.pdf (accessed December 12, 2010)

Konow, F. W. 1896. Verschiedenes aus der Hymenoptern-Gruppe der Tenthrediniden. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 15: 41-59.

Konow, F. W. 1898. Systematische und kritische Bearbeitung der Siriciden-Tribus Siricini. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 17: 73-91.

Konow, F. W. 1905a. Fam. Siricidae. In: Wytsman, P., (ed.), Genera Insectorum, Fasc. 28. 14 pp.

Konow, F. W. 1905b. Systematische Zusammenstellung der bisher bekannt gewordenen Chalastrogastra (Hym.). Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 6: 97-128.

Koutroumpa F. A., Lieutier, F. and Roux-Marabito, G. 2009. Incorporation of mitochondrial fragments in the nuclear genome (Numts) of the longhorned beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 47: 141–148.

Kukor, J. J. and Martin, M. M. 1983. Acquisition of digestive enzymes by siricid woodwasps from their fungal symbiont. Science 220: 1161–1163.

Latreille, P. A. 1810. Considérations générales sur l'ordre naturel des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes; avec un tableau méthodique de leurs genres, disposés en familles. Paris, F. Schoell, 444 pp.

Laurent, P. 1931. Notes on Tremex columba Linn. (Hymen.: Siricidae). Entomological News 42: 67.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edition. Laurentius Salvius, Holmiae, Vol. 1, 824 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1760 [1761]. Fauna Svecica sistens animalia Sveciae regni: Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes. Ed. 2. L. Salvius, Holmiae. 578 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1763. Centuria insectorum rariorum. Uppsala. 32 pp.

Linnen, C. R. and Farrell, B. D. 2007. Mitonuclear Discordance is caused by rampant mitochondrial introgression in Neodiprion (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) sawflies. Evolution 61: 1417–1438.

Linnen, C. R. and Farrell, B. D. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes reveals evolutionary relationships and mitochondrial introgression in the sertifer species group of the genus Neodiprion (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 240–257.

Lintner, J. A. 1897. Twelfth report on the injurious and other insects of the State of New York for the year 1896 (reprinted from the fiftieth report of the New York State Museum). University of the State of New York, Albany. 399 pp.

Lintner, J. A. 1898. New York State Museum. 13th report of state entomologist (reprinted from 51st annual report of the New York State Museum [1897]). University of the state of New York, Albany. 2 + 331-240.

Liu, Z. and Nordlander, G. 1992. Ibaliid parasitoids of siricid woodwasps in North America: Two new Ibalia species and a key to species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 94: 500-507.

Liu, Z. and Nordlander, G. 1994. Review of the family Ibaliidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) with keys to genera and species of the world. Entomologica Scandinavica 25: 377-392.

Lopez, J. V., Yuhki, N, Masuda, R., Modi, W. and Obrien, S. J. 1994. Numt, a recent transfer and tandem amplification of Mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic cat. Journal of Molecular Evolution 39: 174–190.

Maa, T. 1949. A synopsis of Asiatic Siricoidea with notes on certain exotic and fossil forms (Hymenoptera Symphyta). Musée Heude, Notes d'Entomologie Chinoise 13: 11-189.

Maa, T. 1956. Notes on the Genus Eriotremex Benson (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 16(1): 91-94.

MacGillivray, A. D. 1893. Washington Tenthredinidae and Uroceridae. The Canadian Entomologist 25: 237-244.

Madden J. L. 1968. Physiological aspects of host tree favourability for the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 3: 147–149.

Madden, J.L. 1971. Some treatments which render Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) attractive to the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. Bulletin of Entomological Research 60: 467–472.

Madden, J. L. 1981. Egg and larval development in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. Australian Journal of Forestry 22: 341–351.

Madden, J. L. 1982. Avian predation of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., and its parasitoid complex in Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research 9: 135–144.

Madden, J. L. and Irvine, C. J. 1971. The use of lure trees for the detection of Sirex noctilio in the field. Australian Forestry 35: 164–166.

Malaise, R. and Benson, R. B. 1934. The Linnean types of sawflies (Hymenoptera Symphyta). Arkiv for Zoolögi. Band 26, No. 20. 1-14.

Marshall, S. A. 2006. Insects their natural history and diversity with a photographic guide to insects of eastern North America. Firefly Books Ltd., Buffalo, New York and Richmond Hill, Ontario. 718 pp.

Mason, W. R. M. 1993. Key to superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Pp. 65-100, in Goulet, H. and Huber, J. T. (eds.). Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Publication 1894/E. 668 pp.

Matsumura, S. 1912. Thousand insects of Japan. Supplement IV. Keiseisha, Tokyo. 247 pp., Tab. XLII-LV.

Maxwell, D.E. 1955. The comparative antomy of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). The Canadian Entomologist 50 (Supplement 1): 132 pp.

McIntosh, R. L., Katinic, P.J., Allison, J.D., Borden, J. H. and Downey, D.L. 2001. Comparative efficacy of five types of trap for woodborers in the Cerambycidae, Buprestidae and Siricidae. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 3: 113–120.

Middlekauff, W. W. 1948. A new species of Sirex from California (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 24: 189-190.

Middlekauff, W. W. 1960. The siricid wood wasps of California (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 6(4): 59-77.

Middlekauff, W. W. 1962. Notes and description of the previously unknown male of Sirex longicauda. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 38: 31-32.

Miller D. and Clark, A. F. 1935. Sirex noctilio (Hym.) and its parasites in New Zealand. Bulletin of Entomological Research 26: 149-154.

Minko, G. 1981. Chemicals for non-commercial thinning of Pinus radiata by basal stem injection. Australian Weeds 1: 5–6.

Mocsáry, A. 1881. Hymenoptera nova e variis orbis terrarum partibus. Természetrajzi Füzetek, Budapest 5(1): 29-37

Mocsáry, A. 1891. Tenthredinidae et Siricidae novae. Természetrajzi Füzetek 14: 155-159.

Morgan, F. D. 1968. Bionomics of the Siricidae. Annual Review of Entomology 13: 239-256.

Morgan, F. D. and Stewart, N. C. 1972. Developing and testing a lure-trap for the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. Australian Forestry 36: 38–46.

Morris, E. V. 1967. Distribution and hosts of some horntails (Siricidae) in British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 64: 60-63.

Newmann F. G., Harris, J. A., Kassaby, F. Y. and Minko, G. 1982. An improved technique for early detection and control of the Sirex wood wasp in radiate pine plantations. Australian Forestry 45: 117–124.

Nielsen, C., Williams, D. W. and Hajek, A. E. 2009. Putative source of the invasive Sirex noctilio fungal symbiont, Amylostereum areolatum, in the eastern United States and its association with native siricid wasps. British Mycological Journal 113: 1242–1253.

Norton, E. 1864. Notes on Tenthredinidae, with descriptions of new species, in the collection of the Entomological Society. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 3: 5-16.

Norton, E. 1869. Catalogue of the described Tenthredinidae and Uroceridae of North America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 2: 211–242, 321–368.

Okutani, T. 1965. A list of horntails found on imported logs. Akitu 12: 30-32.

Packard, A. S. 1881. Insects injurious to shade and forest trees. Bulletin of the United States Entomological commission 7: 105-106

Packard, A. S. 1890. Insects injurious to forest and shade trees. Report of the United States Entomological Commission 5: 7 + 957 pp.

Palma C. M. A., Valenzuela, E., Parra, P., Gutierrez, M. and Silva, L. T. 2005. Cerrena unicolor (Bull.) Murr (Basidiomycota) aislado de micangio de Tremex fuscicornis Fabr. (Hymenoptero Siricidae) asociado a decaimiento y pudricion del Alamo (Populus sp.) en Chile. Boletin Micologico 20: 57-61.

Pamilo, P., Viljakainen, L. and Vihaiven, A. 2007. Exceptionally high density of NUMT’s in the honey bee genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1340–1346.

Parkin, E. A. 1941. Symbiosis in larval Siricidae (Hymenoptera). Nature 147: 1941.

Parkin, E. A. 1942. Symbiosis and siricid woodwasps. Annals of Applied Biology 29: 268–274.

Parra S. P. 2007. Antecedentes biologicos de Tremex fuscicornis Fabr. Programa Monitoreo Fitosanitario Forestal, Instituto Forestal, Chile, 7 pp.

Pasteels, J. 1951. Sur quelques Tenthredinoidea africains. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 887: 195-205.

Pažoutová, S. and Šrǔtka, P. 2007. Symbiotic relationship between Cerrena unicolor and the horntail Tremex fuscicornis recorded in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycologia 59: 83-90.

Peck, O. 1937. The males of Urocerus albicornis F. and U. flavicornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). The Canadian Entomologist 59: 275-276.

Provancher, L. 1868. Description d'un nouvel Hyménoptère, genre Urocérus Goeffroy. Le Naturaliste Canadien 1 : 17-20.

Provancher, L. 1979. Faune canadienne. Les insects-hyménoptères. Le Naturaliste Canadien 11: 205-233.

Provancher, L. 1883. Petite faune entomologique du Canada et particulièrement de la province de Québec. Vol 2 comprenant les Orthoptères, les Neuroptères et les Hyménoptères. C. Darveau, Québec. 830 pp.

Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1968. Novje MesozojskiePili’schiki (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) [New Mesozoic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta)]. (In Russian). In Rodendorf, B. B., Jurskie Nasekomye Karatau. Nauka, Moskva, pp. 190-236.

Rawlings, G. B. 1953. Rearing of Sirex noctilio and its parasites Ibalia leucospoides. New Zealand Forestry Research. Notes 1: 20-34.

Rawlings, G. B. 1955. Insect epidemics in Pinus radiata forests in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry 7: 53-55.

Reeks, W. A. and Smith, C. C. 1945. A list of some forest insects of Newfoundland. Acadian Naturalist 2(5): 1-17.

Ries, D. T. 1946. Urocerus gigas Fabricius in Brazil (Hym.: Siricidae). Entomological News 57: 218.

Ries, D. T. 1951. Siricoidea. Pp. 82-86, in Muesebeck C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes (eds.). Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. United States Department of Agriculture, Monograph No. 2. 1420 pp.

Riley, C. V. 1870. Popular and practical entomology and botany. The American Entomologist and Botanist. Vol 2(4): 384 pp.

Riley, C. V. 1888. The habits of Thallessa and Tremex. Insect Life 1: 168-179.

Roe, A. D., Stein, J. D., Gilette, N. E. and Sperling, F. A. H. 2006. Identification of Dioryctria (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) in a seed orchard at Chico, California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 433–448.

Rohwer, S. A. 1911. Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects. II. The genotypes of the sawflies or woodwasps, or the superfamily Tenthredinoidea. Technical series, United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, DC 20: 69-109.

Rohwer, S. A. 1928. Suborder Chalastogastra. Pp. 871-895, in Leonard, M. D. (Ed.). A list of the insects of New York with a list of the spiders and certain other allied groups. Cornell University Agricultural experiment Station. Memoirs 101: 1121 pp.

Ross, H. H. 1937. A generic classification of the Nearctic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Illinois Biological Monograph 15, 173 pp.

Rubinoff, D., Cameron, S. and Will, K. 2006. A genomic perspective on the shortcomings of Mitochondrial DNA for “Barcoding” Identification. Journal of Heredity 97: 581–594.

Saini, M.S. 2009. Indian Sawflies. Biodiversity, Keys, Catalogue & Illustrations. (Vol. VI) Families Argidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Pamphiliidae, Siricidae, Xiphydriidae and Orussidae. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India. 168 pp.

Saini, M. S. and Singh, D. 1987. A new genus and a new species of Siricinae (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Siricidae) from India with a revised key to its world genera. Zoologica Scripta 16: 177-180.

Saitou, N. and Nei, M. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Evolution Biology and Evolution 4: 406–425.

Saunders, W. 1883. Insects affecting forest trees. Fruit growers Association of Ontario for the year 1882. Pp. 268-282.

Saunt, J. W. 1924. Sirex areolatus Cresson in Britain. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 60: 80.

Say, T. 1823. A description of some new species of Hymenopterous insects. Western Quarterly Reporter 2: 71-82.

Say, T. 1825. American entomology or description of the insects of North America. Vol. II. W. Brown, Philadelphia. 121 pp. + pls 19-36.

Schiff, N. M., Valley, S. A., LaBonte, J. R. and Smith, D. R. 2006. Guide to the siricid woodwasps of North America. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, West Virginia, FHTET-2006-15. 102 pp. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/sirex/downloads/guidesiricidwoodwasps.pdf. (accessed January 10, 2011)

Schulmeister, S. 2003. Morphology and evolution of the tarsal plantulae in Hymenoptera (Insecta), focusing on the basal lineages. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Zoologica Scripta 32: 153-172.

Semenov-Tian-Shanskij, A. 1921 (1917). Praecursoriae siricidarum novorum diagnoses (Hymenoptera). Russkoe Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 17: 81-95.

Shuckard, W. E. 1837. Description of a new species of Sirex discovered to attack and destroy the Spruce Fir (Pinus nigra). Magazine of Natural History (n.s.) 1: 630-632.

Skevington, J. H. (2008). Hilltopping. In: Encyclopedia of Entomology. Second Edition. J. L. Capinera (Ed), Springer. 4: 1799-1807.

Slippers, B., Coutinho, T. A., Wingfield, B. D. and Wingfield, M. J. 2003. A review of the genus Amylostereum and its association with woodwasps. South African Journal of Science 99: 70–74.

Slippers, B., de Groot, P. and Wingfield, M. J. 2011. The Sirex woodwasp and its fungal symbiont: research and management of a worldwide invasive pest. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. xv + 301 pp.

Slippers, B., and Haugen, D. A. 2009. Sirex literature. Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute. http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/sirex/sirexref (accessed on January 10, 2011)

Slosson, A. T. 1895. Additional list of insects taken in alpine region of Mt. Washington. Entomological News 6: 317.

Smith, D. R. 1969. Symphyta of the West Indies, including those collected during the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian biological survey of Dominica (Symphyta). Proceeding of the Entomological Society of Washington 71: 540-543.

Smith, D. R. 1975a. The sawfly types of Abbé Léon Provancher (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Le Naturaliste Canadien 102: 293-304.

Smith, D. R. 1975b. Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura), an Asian horntail in North America (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Economic Insect Report 25(44): 851-854.

Smith, D. R. 1976. The Xiphydriid woodwasps of North America (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 102: 101–131.

Smith, D. R. 1978. Suborder Symphyta (Xyelidae, Parachexyelidae, Parapamphiliidae, Xyelydidae, Karatavitidae, Gigasiricidae, Sepulcidae, Pseudosiricidae, Anaxyelidae, Siricidae, Xiphydriidae, Paroryssidae, Xyelotomidae, Blasticotomidae, Pergidae). In van der Vecht, J. and R. D. Shenefelt, eds. Hymenopterorum Catalogus, pars 14. W. Junk B. V., Publishers, The Hague. 193 pp.

Smith, D. R. 1979. Symphyta. Pp. 3-132, in Krombein, K. V., P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith, and B. D. Burks, (eds), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 1198 pp.

Smith, D. R. 1981. New records for Eriotremex (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from southeast Asia and New Guinea. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83: 389.

Smith, D. R. 1986. Review of the sawfly genus Lagium (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88: 179–184.

Smith, D. R. 1987. Urocerus sah (Mocsáry) (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) new to North America and key to North American species of Urocerus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89: 834-835.

Smith, D. R. 1988. A synopsis of the sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of America south of the United States: Introduction, Xyelidae, Pamphiliidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Xiphydriidae, Siricidae, Orussidae, Cephidae. Systematic Entomology 13: 205-261.

Smith, D. R. 1996. Discovery and spread of the Asian horntail, Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura) (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), in the United States. Journal of Entomological Science 31: 166-171.

Smith, D. R. 1997. Collections of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera) in the mid–Atlantic states including an eastern record for Schlettererius cinctipes (Cresson). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 99: 377–378.

Smith, D. R. 2010. The woodwasp genus Eriotremex (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a review and new species from Malaysia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 112(3): 423–438.

Smith, D. R and Schiff, N. M. 1998. The genera Macroxyela Kirby and Megaxyela Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100: 636–657.

Smith, D. R. and Schiff, N. M. 2002. A review of the siricid woodwasps and their ibaliid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Ibaliidae) in the eastern United States, with emphasis on the mid-Atlantic region. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104: 174-194.

Smith, M. A., Woodley, N. E., Janzen, D. H., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P. D. N. 2006. DNA barcodes reveal cryptic host-specificity within the presumed polyphagous members of a genus of parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103: 3657–3662.

Smith, R. C. 1943. A list and brief description of the most important or interesting species of insects in Kansas by orders and families. Pp. 117-440, in Smith, R. C., E. G. Kelly, G. A, Dean, H. R. Bryson and R. L. Parker. Common insects in Kansas. Reprot of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. W. C. Austin State Printer, Topeka. 440 pp.

Solomon, J. D. 1995. Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs. Agriculture Handbook 706. Washington D.C. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 735 pp.

Song, H., Buhay, J. E., Whiting, M. F. and Crandall, K. A. 2008. Many species in one: DNA barcoding overestimates the number of species when nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes are coamplified. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 13486–13491.

Spradery, J. P. 1969. The biology of Pseudorhyssa sternata Merrill (Hym, Ichneumonidae), a cleptoparasite of siricid woodwasps. Bulletin of Entomological Research 59: 290-297.

Spradbery, J. P. 1970. Host finding by Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) and ichneumonid parasite of siricid woodwasps. Animal behaviour 18(1): 103-114.

Spradbery, J. P. 1973. A comparative study of the phytotoxic effects of siricid woodwasps on conifers. Annals of Applied Biology 75: 309–320.

Spradbery, J. P. 1977. The oviposition biology of siricid woodwasps in Europe. Ecological Entomology 2: 225–230.

Spradberry, P. J. 1990. Predation of larval siricid woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) by woodpeckers in Europe. The Entomologist 109: 67–71.

Spradbery, J. P. and Kirk, A. A. 1978. Aspects of the ecology of siricid woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Europe, North Africa and Turkey with special reference to the biological control of Sirex noctilio F. in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 68: 341–359.

Stange, L. A. 1996. The horntails of Florida (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Entomology Circular No. 376.

Stephens, J. F. 1929. The nomenclature of British insects. Baldwin and Cradock, London. 68 pp.

Stephens, J. F. 1835. Illustrations of British entomology; or, a synopsis of indigenous insects: containing their generic and specific distinctions; with an account of their metamorphosis, times of appearance, localities, food, and economy, as far as practicable. Mandibulata. Vol VII. Baldwin and Cradock, London. 2+310 pp.

Stillwell, M. A. 1960. Decay associated with woodwasps in balsam fir weakened by insect attacks. Forest Science 6(3): 225-229.

Stillwell, M. A. 1964. The fungus associated with woodwasps occurring in beech in New Brunswick. The Canadian Journal of Botany 42: 495-496.

Stillwell, M. A. 1965. Hypopleural organs of the woodwasp larva Tremex columba (L.) containing the fungus Daedalea unicolor Bull. ex Fries. The Canadian Entomologist 97: 783-784.

Stillwell, M. A. 1966. Woodwasps (Siricidae) in conifers and the associated fungus, Stereum chailletii in eastern Canada. Forest Science 12: 121-128.

Stillwell, M. A. 1967. The pigeon tremex, Tremex columba (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), in New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist 99: 685-689.

Tabata, M. and Abe, Y. 1995. Cerrena unicolor isolated from the mycangia of a horntail, Tremex longicollis, in Kochi prefecture, Japan. Mycoscience 36: 447–450.

Tabata, M. and Abe, Y. 1997. Amylostereum laevigatum associated with the Japanese horntail, Urocerus japonicus. Mycoscience 38: 421–427.

Tabata, M. and Abe, Y. 1999. Amylostereum laevigatum associated with a horntail, Urocerus antennatus. Mycoscience 40: 535–539.

Taeger, A. and Blank, S. M. 2011. ECatSym – Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Program version 3.10(07.12.2011) – Digital Entomological Information, Müncheberg. http://www.sdei.de/ecatsym/index.html (accessed on May 18, 2011)

Taeger, A., Blank, S. M. and Liston, A. D. 2010. World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa 2580: 1-1064.

Takeuchi , K. 1938. A systematic study on the suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera) of the Japanese empire (I). Tenthredo. Acta Entomologica 2(2): 173–229.

Talbot, P. H. B. 1977. The Sirex-Amylostereum-Pinus association. Annual Review of Phytopathology 15: 41–54.

Taylor, J. S. 1962. Sirex noctilio F., a recent introduction in South Africa. Entomologists Record and Journal of Variation 74: 273.

Taylor K. L. 1967a. The introduction, culture, liberation, and recovery of parasites of Sirex noctilio in Tasmania, 1962–67. Australia CSIRO Division of Entomology, Technical Paper No. 8. 19 pp.

Taylor, K. L. 1967b. Parasitism of Sirex noctilio F. by Schlelettererius cinctipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Stepahanidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 6: 13-19.

Taylor, K. L. 1977 (1976). The introduction and establishment of insect parasitoids to control Sirex noctilio in Australia. Entomophaga 21(4): 429-440.

Thomas, C. 1876. Noxious and beneficial insects of the State of Illinois. Report of the State Entomologist 6: 174 + IV + II pp.

Thomas, C. 1881. Uroceridae. Pp. 70-71, in Noxious and beneficial insects of the State of Illinois. Report of the state entomologist 10: 238 + 6 pp.

Thomson C. G. 1871. Hymenoptera Scandinaviae, V. 1. Typis expressit Hage Ohlson, Lundae: 342 pp.

Tonapi, G. T. 1958. A comparative study of spiracular structure and mechanism in some Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 110(16): 489-519, Tab i-xii.

Tournier, H. 1890. Descriptions d'espèces nouvelles. L'Entomologiste Genevois 1(11-12): 220-223.

Townes, H. K. 1949. The Nearctic species of the family Stephanidae (Hymnoptera). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99: 361-370.

Townes, H. K. 1972. A light weight Malaise trap. Entomological News 83: 239–247.

Townes, H. K. and Townes, M. 1960. Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico: 2 subfamily Ephialtinae, Xoridinae, Acaenitinae. United States National Museum Bulletin 216. 676 pp.

Townsend G. 1878 Report United States Commissioner of Agriculture. P. 93, Pl. 1, Fig. 15.

Tribe, G. C. 1995. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a pest of Pinus species, now established in South Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 215-217.

Tribe, G. C. 1997. Sirex woodwasp expands its range. Plant Protection News, Bulletin of the Plant Protection Institute 49: 9-10.

Vasu, V. and Saini, M. S. 1999. Taxonomic studies on the species of Xeris (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Siricidae) from India. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 68: 273–282.

Viedma de, M. G. and Suarez, F. J. 1961. Un nuevo Xeris de Marruecos (Hym. Siricidae). Graellsia 19: 19–27.

Viitasaari, M. 1984. Sahapistiäiset 3. Siricicoidea, Orussoidea, ja Cephoidea, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural and Forest Zoology Reports 6. 66 pp.

Viitasaari, M. 1988. New methods for identification of woodwasps (Siricidae) with notes on Eurosiberian species of Sirex Fabricius. Pp. 9-12, in V. V. Zlobin ed. The connection between entomofauna of the north Europe and Siberia. USSR Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Leningrad, 88p.

Viitasaari, M. and Midtgaard, F. 1989. A contribution to the taxonomy of horntails with notes on the genus Sirex Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Siricidae). Annales Entomologici Fennici 55: 103-110.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2000. The ovipositor apparatus of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): Phylogenetic implications and functional morphology. Zoologica Scripta 29: 310-345.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2001. Phylogeny and classification of the extant basal lineages of Hymenoptera (Insecta). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 393-442.

Villacide, J. 2010. El exito de invasion de la avispa de los pinos Sirex noctilio en la Patagonia. Agropecuaria, Instituto de Microbiologia y zoologia Agricola, Boletin MIP 20. http://www.inta.gov.ar/imyza/info/bol/mip/10/bol20/mip20.htm (accessed on December 12, 2010)

Walker, F. 1866. Sirex varipes. Pp. 342-343, in Lord, J. K. (ed.). The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Vol. 2. VII + 375 pp.

Walker, F. 1873. On the geographical distribution of some genera of Canadian insects. The Canadian Entomologist 5:77-78.

Walsh, B. D. and Riley, C. V. 1868. Popular and practical entomology. The American Entomologist. Vol 1(2). R. P. Dtudley and Co., St. Louis Missouri. 252 pp.

Ward, R. D., Zemlak, T. S., Innes, B. H., Last, P. R. and Hebert, P. D. N. 2005. DNA barcoding Australia’s fish species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360: 1847–1859.

Warriner, M. D. 2008. First record of the Asian horntail, Eriotremex formosanus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Arkansas, U.S.A. Entomological News 119: 212-213.

Webb, D. W. 1980. Primary Insect Types in the Illinois Natural History Survey Collection, Exclusive of the Collembola and Thysanoptera. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 32(2): 55-191.

Weber, N. A. 1950. A survey of the insects and related arthropods of Arctic Alaska. Part 1. Transaction of the American Entomological Society 76: 147-206.

Webster, F. M. 1895. The black horned horntail, Urocerus Nigricornis. The Ohio Farmer, August 29, 1895, p. 177.

Westcott, R. L. 1971. New host and distribution records for three western wood-boring Hymenoptera (Syntexidae, Siricidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 310.

Westwood, J. O. 1874. Thesaurus entomologicus Oxoniensis; or, illustrations of new, rare, and interesting insects, for the most part contained in the collection presented to the University of Oxford by the Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. Clarendon Press, Oxford. XXIV+205 pp + 40 plates.

White, S. C. and Salisbury, G. A. 2000. Insect of Kansas. Kansas Department of Agriculture publication 131. 523 pp. [illustrated 3rd edition of Smith et al. 1943]

Whitworth , T. L., Dawson, R. D., Magalon, H. and Baudry, E. 2007. DNA barcoding cannot reliably identify species of the blowfly genus Protocalliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 1731–1739.

Wickman, B. E. 1964a. Observations on the siricid parasite, Ibalia ensiger. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 40: 19–20.

Wickman, B. E. 1964b. A comparison of radiographic and dissection methods for measuring siricid populations in wood. The Canadian Entomologist 96: 508-510.

Wong, H. R. 1963. The external morphology of the adults and ultimate larval instar of the larch sawfly, Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). The Canadian Entomologist 95: 897-921.

Yuasa, H. 1922. A classification of the larvae of the Tenthredinoidea. Illinois biological monographs 7(4): 1-172.

Zondag R. 1962. A nematode disease of Sirex noctilio. Interim Research Release. New Zealand Forest Service, Rotorua, New Zealand. 6 pp.

Zylstra, K. E., Dodds, K. J., Francese, J. A. and Mastro, V. 2010. Sirex noctilio in North America: the effect of stem injection timing on the attractiveness and suitability of trap trees. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12: 243–250.

Zylstra, K. E. and Mastro, V. C. 2010. The History of Sirex noctilio & the role of USDA APHIS in the northeastern United States. Instituto Nacional de Technologia Agropecuaria, Instituto de Microbiologia y zoologia Agricola, Boletin MIP 20. http://www.inta.gov.ar/imyza/info/bol/mip/10/bol20/mip20.htm (accessed on December 12, 2010)